Islamic Voice A Monthly English Magazine

SHAWWAL 1424 H
December 2003
Volume 16-12 No : 204
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COUNTDOWN TO HAJJ


Health Guidelines for Hajj 2004
Information Guidance to Hajj Pilgrims
Hajj Diary

Some Useful Tips for Pilgrims
The Rituals of Hajj and Umrah


Health Guidelines for Hajj 2004

The Saudi Kingdom has issued health guidelines for those arriving in the Holy land to perform Umra and Hajj in the year 2004. Minister of Health, Hamad Bin Abdullah Al-Mane, while issuing the conditions said the Ministry annually places guidelines for pilgrims after gathering information about various infectious diseases which could cause problems during Haj and Umra. Assistant Minister for Preventive Medicine, Yocoub Yusuf al Mazrou clarified that the Ministry of Health keeps an eye on infectious diseases throughout the year to draw up a basis for health conditions.

He said the guidelines this year include protection and prevention procedures for those arriving from countries with local transmission of the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) virus.

Some of these procedures are to be applied outside the Kingdom, while others will be administered at various points of entry into the country. Rida Bin Mohamad Khalil, Consultant to the Health Administration and head of the preparatory Haj Committee said the Kingdom's missions around the world have been advised of the necessity of applying these health conditions.

They include the following:

Yellow Fever: Pilgrims arriving from countries known to be infected with Yellow Fever are required to present a valid immunization certificate against the disease in accordance with International Health Regulations. In the absence of a certificate, those arriving will be vaccinated at the port of entry into the Kingdom and placed under observation for six days from the date of vaccination or last date of possible infection. In accordance with the International Health Regulations, aeroplanes and other means of transport arriving from countries with a known Yellow Fever epidemic must present a disinfections certificate on board the craft.
Meningoccocal Meningitis The quadrivalent vaccination (ACYW135) is a must for Haj and Umra visa for the year 2004. Everyone entering the Kingdom whether for Haj, Umra or seasonal work in the holy sites must present a vaccination certificate against meningitis specifying that they have been vaccinated at least 10 days prior to and not more than 3 years before arriving in the holy land. Health authorities in the relevant countries must carry out vaccinations as follows: Adults and children over 2 years are given a single dose of the ACYW135 vaccine. Children from 3 months to 2 years are given 2 doses of the vaccine three months apart. In case the vaccination is not available, they should be given preventive treatment. The Saudi Health authorities at ports of entry should give pilgrims arriving from the African belt along with those coming from India and Bangladesh preventive doses aimed at reducing the carrier rate among them. The Ministry of Health recommends that all medical delegation should give their members a dose of the preventive treatment, Ceprofloxacin or Rifampicin prior to the departure from Haj areas in order to reduce the carrier rate among them and prevent the spread of infections among their companions.
Influenza The Ministry of Health recommends that home countries should make their citizens aware to take the influenza vaccination prior to their departure for the Kingdom especially those who are likely to suffer complications of the illness such as the elderly and those with long-term respiratory diseases or diabetes or liver and /or heart failure.
SARS Even though, the World Health Organisation has announced the end of the local transmission of the SARS virus in the countries with registered cases, the definite end of this illness has not been confirmed.
Countries with local SARS transmission Those arriving from these countries must fill out a Health Declaration card to identify anyone with the symptoms so that they may be aided.
All those arriving Body temperature will be measured. Anyone with a raised body temperature will be evaluated at the port of entry and suspicious cases will be isolated.
Observation Close observation will be undertaken at all ports of entry for all pilgrims arriving from countries known to have epidemics of diseases and are subject to international observation such as SARS, Yellow Fever, Meningitis and Dengue fever-including close observation of their fellow travellers.

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Information Guidance to Hajj Pilgrims

Preparations PREPARATIONS for Hajj should normally start immediately after filling up of forms. Baggage should be light and you should bring suitcases of normal size that are easy to handle. You must put identification marks (name and address of the pilgrims) on them. Subsequently, the pilgrim pass number of the pilgrim should also be added to the identification marks on the luggage. Identification should be in the form of tags attached to the baggage and also details written on the baggage itself with an appropriate coloured indelible ink pen. Avoid taking gunny bags, sacks and other loose material. Suit cases should not have any pouches on the outside. Find out the weight of free baggage allowed on your plane. You must be careful to take less baggage since you would be carrying a number of items back from Saudi Arabia like dates (khajur), prayer mats (janamaz), zam-zam water, other assorted items like prayer caps (topi), prayer beads (Tasbeeh), etc. and such other items that you may wish to buy as gifts or for your own use. Banned items in Saudi Arabia Get to know of the items that are banned in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia before packing your luggage. If you are bringing medicine for your personal use, you should bring the doctor's prescription in original with you, otherwise medicine will be confiscated. Do not bring cooking oil, kerosene, flour, perishable items or other stuff that the customs officials may have objection to or may have problems in identifying. Do not carry any gift or packet given to you by any one, not even by your relatives and friends. If carrying such a thing becomes essential then you must thoroughly inspect the packet that you are to carry since you will be personally held responsible and liable if it contains any objectionable thing. Please remember that even magazines, photographs, books and religious literature as also audio and video cassettes may be confiscated at the customs. Drugs invoke the death penalty. Liquor is banned. Meningitis Vaccination Remember to take your Meningitis vaccination at least 10 days before embarkation and to keep the certificate along with a photocopy of the same. (The original with you and the photocopy in your luggage). Luggage and Baggage All items of baggage should be marked before departure by tags and writings which should include at least the name of the pilgrim and the pilgrim pass number.

Ensure Safety of Documents Please ensure that photocopies of your pilgrim pass, your Meningitis certificate, your bank draft, your ticket and other necessary documents like doctor's prescription, etc. are kept in a separate folder in your luggage. The original pilgrim pass, Meningitis certificate, bank draft, ticket and other essential papers should be carried by you on your person in the hand baggage that you are carrying and this hand baggage should also be properly marked for identification. Please ensure that your hand baggage is never out of your sight from the time you reach your airport in India till the time you reach your room in Makkah (Saudi Arabia). You must start making other preparations for your journey like booking your railway or bus tickets, or other transport for travel from your home to the city and airport from where you are to embark for Saudi Arabia. You must also ensure that you have a proper place to stay at this embarkation point. If you are advanced in age, you must have a companion accompanying you from home till this embarkation airport. Get photocopies of all your medical records, purchase your medicine and get the doctor's prescription for the same. Purchase necessary items like pyjamas, kurtas, shirts, lungis, underwears, slippers, shoes, caps, sweaters, blankets, toilet mug (lota), water bottle, soap, toothpaste, toothbrush, comb, socks, handkerchief and such items that are necessary for your journey. Please have some extra ropes, twines, a few polythene bags, a small torch, a few cells, notepad, pen etc. in your hand baggage. You must remember that you have to travel light and so, for example, if you are accustomed to wearing kurta and pyjama then you must carry only 4-5 (washable) sets of the same. Remember that Hajj season is now in the relatively colder months and hence you need to have a sweater and blanket for your protection. Your rooms in Makkah and Madinah and the tents in Mina may be air-conditioned and hence you will feel cold, especially during night. Even in the Haram Sharief at Makkah and Madinah, most of the portion is air-conditioned. Start taking long walks every day in preparation for the walks that you will need to make during the course of Hajj and at Makkah and Madinah. This will build up your stamina and accustom your body to such long distance walking.

Hajj Diary

On Arrival
1. Ihram at Meeqat.
2. (i) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah (Declaration of Intention) and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj and Umrah combined (Qiran) or
ii) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Umrah only (Tamattu) or
iii) Two Rakat Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj only (Ifraad).
3. Tawaf Qudoom in Makkah (Arrival Tawaf).
4. Two Rakats Nafil /Drink Zamzam.
5. Sai'e
i) For Qiran maintain Ihram until Hajj.
ii) For Tamathu one can come out of Ihram.
8th Dhul Hijjah
6.Ihram from Makkah
i) For those residing in Makkah, Ihram is from place of residence.
7. Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah for Hajj and Talbiyah.
8. Arrival in Mina before Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers and Fajr Prayer of 9 Dhul Hijjah.
9th Dhul Hijjah
9. After Fajr prayer, arrival at Arafat.
10. Zuhr, Asr shortened and combined in Nimra Mosque or wherever the tents have been put up in the camps.
11. Standing at Arafat, after sunset, departure to Muzdalifah without performing Maghrib prayer at Arafat.
12. Arrival at Muzdalifah, delayed Maghrib and Isha prayers with one Azan and two Iqamats combined. (Isha shortened)
13. Collect pebbles for Rami of Jamra.. Pebbles may also be collected in Mina.
10th Dhul Hijjah
14. Arrival at Mina after Fajr prayer in Muzdalifah.
15. Lapidation (Rami) at Jamra Aqaba (Big Satan) before sun is past meridian.
16. Sacrifice animal. One lamb or sheep per person. Camel and cow can be shared by 7 persons .
17.Haircut or shaving of head.
18. Come out of Ihram.
19. Tawaf Ifadah / Ziarah
11th Dhul Hijjah
20. Lapidation (Rami) at all the Three Jamarat after the sun is past meridian (seven pebbles at each jamra)
21. Stay in Mina
12th Dhul Hijjah
22. Lapidation to be repeated as on 11 Dhul Hijjjah
23. Leave Mina before sunset perform Tawaf Ifadah if not performed yet.
13th Dhul Hijjah
24. If sunsets in Mina, stay there and do lapidation as on the previous two days after the sun is past meridian, leave Mina for home.
25. Tawaf Wida (Farewell Tawaf) when leaving Makkah for Madinah or home country.
Talbiyah
Pilgrims are also recommended to repeat the traditional phrase declaring that they are responding to Allah's call for them to offer the pilgrimage and complete it. They repeat these phrases as they go into Ihram. Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaik Laa Shareeka Laka Labbaik Innal Hamda Wannimata laka walmulk Laa Shareeka Lak "I respond to Your call my Lord I respond to You, there is no diety save You. All praise, grace and dominion belong to You. You have no partners." Men should utter this aloud while women should say it silently. Repeat this Talbiyyah frequently, and engage in the praise of Allah, in supplication for forgiveness, and in the enjoining of what is good and the forbidding of what is evil. Essentials of pilgrimage
There are four essentials of pilgrimage which must be done for it to be valid. Omitting anyone of these will invalidate one's pilgrimage. These are: 1. Ihram
2. Attendance at Arafat at the specified time
3. The Tawaf of ifaadah and
4. Sa'ie between Safah and Marwah
5. A fifth essential is added by Al-Shafie school of thought, which is to shave one's head (for men only) or to shorten one's hair.
Restrictions of Ihram
In the state of Ihram the following acts are forbidden. 1) To cut or shave the hairs of head or body, till the sacrifice of animals is completed.
2) To cut the nails.
3) To wear stitched clothes (for men only).
4) To wear turban or cap or anything which covers the heads (for men only).
5) To wear shoes or socks above the ankle.
6) To apply perfume.
7) To cover the face
8) To perform Nikah or to arrange for Nikah.
9) To hunt animals.
10) To fight or quarrel.
11) To have sex,

Women in Hajj Performing Hajj without Mahram forbidden According to Nusrat Ibn Abbas, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) has said that no woman should make a journey without a Mahram. On hearing this, one person said "O Prophet (Pbuh), my name has been included in Jihad and my wife has left for the Hajj pilgrimage." The Prophet (Pbuh) replied: "Go and perform the Hajj with your wife". (Mishkat) Mahram means a person with whom a marriage is not possible, example father, son, nephew, son-in-law, paternal uncle and maternal uncle. Paternal cousins and maternal cousins cannot be Mahram because marriage can be consummated with them. Mahram is such a person with whom one may not experience feelings which are natural only to a married state. Some women consider anyone as brother or son for the sake of making a journey. This is not allowed by Shariat. In the performance of the holy rites of Hajj to break Shariat law and perform the Hajj is clearly a sin and considered as haram. This is because from beginning to the end it is a violation of the Shariat. Without a Mahram, the journey is forbidden whether the journey is by air or by any other means. Some points to remember (i) If a woman is eligible to perform Hajj with the necessary means to do so but cannot find a Mahram, she is not allowed to perform it.
(ii) If a woman having the means to perform Hajj and also has a Mahram is in the state of Idat (Obligatory period observed after husband's death) then the performance of Hajj for her is incorrect.
(iii) Performing Hajj for a woman in the period of Iddat (after separation in marriage) is considered a sin.
iv) If a wife wishes to perform Hajj with a Mahram (such as son) then the husband cannot prevent her from performing Hajj.
Ihram for Women (i) It is obligatory for women to cover the head.
(ii) Stitched cloth is allowed.
(iii) Any colour dress is allowed.
As for a woman pilgrim, she is forbidden to use perfumed clothes, a veil that covers the face, and gloves. Ibn 'Umar reported : "Allah's Messenger (Pbuh) forbade women pilgrims from wearing gloves, veils and clothes dyed with saffron or worse. Besides these, they may wear anything else, any colour, silk clothes, ornaments, trousers, or a shirt or shoes." Bukhari reported that 'Aishah (RA) wore a dress that was dyed with 'usfur' while she was in a state of Ihram, and she said: "A woman must neither wear a veil to cover her face, nor wear clothes that are dyed with saffron or other fragrant dyeing material." Jabir said: "I do not consider 'usfur a scent." 'Aishah held that there is no harm in women pilgrims wearing ornaments, black or rose-coloured clothes and shoes. Bukhari and Ahmad have reported that the Prophet (Pbuh) said: "A pilgrim woman must neither cover her face nor wear gloves." This proves that a woman in the state of Ihram should not cover her face and hands. The scholars, however, say that there is no harm if she covered her face with something other than a veil. She may also use an umbrella or similar item as a screen between men and herself. But if she is afraid of tempting others she must cover her face. 'Aishah said: "Men on camels used to pass by us while we were with the Prophet (Pbuh) and in the state of Ihram. We would cover our face with our gowns when they passed by us, and then uncover them again."
On Menstrual Days It is reported by Hazrat Aishah that once on a Hajj Pilgrimage when she experience the inconvenience of monthly period, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) noticing her inconvenience said: "There is no need to cry. This is something that Allah has made as a natural occurrence for daughters of Adam (Pbuh), meaning all women." Most scholars are of the opinion that purification is not necessary for performing Sa'i between Safa and Marwah, in the light of what the Prophet (Pbuh) said to 'Aishah once when she menstruated. He told her. "You may perform all rites (of Hajj) as other pilgrims do, except performing tawaf around the Ka'bah which you may do after you are clean and no longer menstruating." 'Aishah and Ummi Salamah said: "A woman who performs the tawaf, offers two rak'ah prayer (by the Station of Ibrahim), and then finds that her period has started, may perform Sa'i between Safa and Marwah." It is preferable, however, to be in a state of complete purity while performing various rites of Hajj or 'Umrah, because cleanliness is commendable in Islam.
* It is permissible for woman to enter the state of Ihram in case she has experienced menstrual period or child birth by performing the ghusl (obligatory bath) and making the niyat (intention) of Hajj or Umrah. She will have to recite "Labbaik, Allahumma Lubaik, La Shareeka Lak, Innal Hamda, Wannaymata Lak, Walmulk, La Shareeka Lak. This is enough for her to enter the state of Ihram.
* She may not offer the two rak'ats nafil salat of Ihram until she is fully clean and performed the obligatory ghusl. (bath).
* After Ihram she may perform the duties of Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina.
* She may not perform tawaf in this state after reaching Makkah.
* She may pray and recite Istaghfar and all other duas.
* If a woman fears that she may begin to menstruate she may perform the Tawaf Al-Ifadah early on the day of Nahr - 10th of Dhul-Hajjah as a precaution against the menses.
* If a woman (Pilgrim) is afraid of her monthly period, she may perform the Tawaf of Ka'bah before throwing the pebbles at Jamarah Al Aqabah and even before her sacrificial animal is slaughtered.
* Women may touch and kiss the Black Stone when there is an opportunity and no men are around. It is reported that 'Aishah said to a woman, "Do not crowd with others at the Black Stone, but if you find a chance, touch and kiss it, otherwise if there is crowding, then say a takbir (Allah is the Greatest) when you are opposite to it, and make your tawaf and do not cause any harm to anyone."
*Staying at Arafah means physical and mental presence in any part of Arafah, whether one is awake, asleep, riding, sitting, lying down, walking, and regardless of whether one is in a state of purity or not, e.g., a menstruating woman.
*There is consensus on throwing pebbles before midnight on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah (the Night of Sacrifice). It is permissible, however, for women, children, the weak, those who have a valid excuse, to throw pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah in the night.
* Persons who for valid reasons, illness, etc., cannot themselves throw the pebbles may ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf. Jabir said, "We performed Hajj with the Prophet (Pbuh) and we had some women and children with us. We (adults) uttered talbiyah and threw pebbles on behalf of the children." This was reported by Ibn Majah.
* Abu Daw'ud and others reported from Ibn' Abbas that the Prophet (Pbuh) said, "Women (Pilgrims) do not have to shave (their heads); they may only shorten their hair." Ibn 'Umar said, "when a woman (Pilgrim) wants to cut off her hair, she may hold her hair at the front and cut it off about the length of the tip of a finger."n The Faraaidh of Hajj Hajj has Three fundamental Fardh (compulsory) acts, viz., (1) Ihraam: Making Niyyat with the heart for Hajj and reciting Talbiyah, i.e.

Labbayk Allahumma labbayk. Labbayka laa sharika laka labbayk. Innal hamda wan-ni'mata laka wal-mulk. Laa shareeka lak.

(2) Wuqoof at Arafaat: This wuqoof (stay-over) at Arafaat is on the 9th Zil Hijj at any time from after zawaal until Subh Saadiq (Dawn) of 10th Zil Hijj, even if the Wuqoof is for just a moment.
(3) Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat: This is the Tawaaf which is made at any time from dawn on the 10th Zil Hijj until 12th Zil Hijj after the head is shaved or the hair cut.
If any one of these three Fardh acts is omitted, the Hajj is not valid. Omission of any of these acts cannot be compensated for by means of sacrificing an animal, etc. Should any one of these three Fardh acts be omitted, the Hajj becomes qadhaa, i.e. it will have to be performed again.
The Waajibaat of Hajj Six acts are Waajib in Hajj. To stop over at Muzdalifah at the time of Wuqoof, i.e. during the night of the 10th Zil Hijj.
To make Sayee between Safa and Marwah.
Rami of the Jimaar, i.e. to strike the pebbles at the Jamraat.
Qurbaani, (sacrifice) if the Haji is a Qaarin or Mutamatti'.
Halq (shaving the head) or Qasr (cutting the hair).
Tawaaf-e-Widaa (The Farewell Tawaaf) for those living outside the Meeqaat.
If a Waajib act is omitted, the Hajj is still valid, but compensation has to be offered whether the omission is deliberately or by error. Sometimes the, jaza (i.e. the compensation) is Dum (an animal) and sometimes it is Sadqah. However, if a Waajib act is omitted on account of a valid reason, then jaza
(compensation) is not obligatory.

The Sunnats of Hajj Tawaaf-e-Qudoom for the Mufrid Aafaaqee and the Qaarin.
Raml during Tawaaf-e-Qudoom.
The Imaam has to deliver Khutbah at three places:
On the 7th Zil Hijj at Makkah Mukarramah.
On the 9th Zil Hijj at Arafaat in Masjid Namrah before the two Salaats are performed together.
On 11th Zil Hijj at Mina.
To spend the 9th night at Mina.
To proceed from Mina to Arafaat after sunrise on the 9th Zil Hijj.
To depart from Arafaat with the departure of the Imaam.
To spend the night at Muzdalifah after returning from Arafaat.
To take ghusl in Arafaat.
During the days at Mina, to spend the nights also at Mina.
To halt at Muhassab on returning from Mina even if just for a moment.
Besides the above, there are many other Sunnat acts of the Hajj.
Deliberate neglect or omission of any Sunnat is sinful. Rendering the Sunnats is an act of great thawaab. If a Sunnat act is omitted, there is no jaza (compensation) or penalty to be paid. However, care should be taken not to omit the Sunnats since such omission reduces the thawaab of the Hajj.
The Mustahabbaat of Hajj
Men have to recite the Talbiyah audibly.
Reciting the Talbiyah in abundance.
Qurbaani (sacrificing an animal) by the Mufrid.
To take ghusl at the time of entering Makkah Mukarramah.
To stop near to Jabal-e-Rahmat in Arafaat if there is no congestion.
To perform Zuhr and Asr Salaat together in Arafaat with Jamaat.
During the duration of Wuqoof at Arafaat to recite Talbiyah and make dua in abundance.
To halt at Mash'ar-e- Haraam during Fajr (morning) of the Day of Arafaat.
To perform Fajr Salaat at Muzdalifah.
To make Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat on 10th Zil Hijj.
Mustahab is an act which is highly meritorious. Its thawaab is great. However, omission of Mustahab acts is not sinful. But, this does not mean that one should be neglectful in regard to the Mustahabbaat.
The Makruhaat of Hajj
Makruh acts are reprehensible and the thawaab of the Hajj is reduced by the perpetration of Makruh acts. The Hajj becomes defective by the commission of Makruh acts. Deliberate perpetration of Makruh acts is sinful. However, Makruh acts will not invalidate the Hajj. Among the prohibitions, only sexual intercourse which has been committed prior to the Wuqoof of Arafaat. The following things are Makruh:
The Imaam reciting the Khutbah before zawaal on the Day of Arafaat.
After performing both Salaats together in Masjid Namrah, to remain long outside the limits of Arafaat.
To depart from Arafaat before or after the Imaam.
To make the Rami with pebbles obtained from near to the Jimaar or with pebbles of the Masjid or to break a big stone into bits and use the pieces for pelting.
When terminating the Ihraam of Hajj or Umrah to shave only one quarter of the head or to cut hair from only a quarter of the head.
During the days of Mina, to spend the nights in Makkah.
To make Wuqoof of Muzdalifah in Wadi Muhassar.
Prohibitions of Ihraam
The following acts are prohibited during the state of Ihraam:
Sexual intercourse as well as all sex-play and acts and talks of romance. Quarrelling and fighting.
Hunting land animals.
To inform a hunter of the whereabouts of an animal.
To aid a hunter in anyway whatever.
To chase a wild animal.
To break an egg of a wild bird.
To injure any wild animal, even removing its feathers.
To sell wild animals.
To purchase wild animals.
To remove the milk of a wild animal.
To cook the meat of eggs of wild animals.
To kill lice.
To throw lice in the heat of the sun.
To wash clothing with the intention of killing lice.
To instruct another person, directly or indirectly, to kill lice.
To dye one's hair.
To use gum or any kind of hair conditioner.
To apply perfume.
To cut hair and nails or to ask another person to cut one's hair and nails. To cover the face or any part of the face.
To wear sewn garments, e.g. kurtah, trousers, topee, etc.
To wear such shoes or socks which conceal the raised bone in the front of the foot.
To wear garments which have been dyed in saffron, kusum or any fragrant substances. However, if the garments so dyed have been thoroughly washed, leaving no fragrance, it will then be permissible to wear such garments.
Makruhaat of Ihraam
The following acts are Makruh during the state of Ihraam:
To comb the hair or beard.
To scratch the hair in such a way that hair or lice falls out.
To make khilaal in the beard.
To sew the two ends of the lower Ihraam garment when this is not occasioned by a need to conceal the aurah.
To tie knots in the upper garment or to tie it with pins, needles, etc. To smell perfume.
To touch perfume.
To sit in the shop of a perfurne-seller so as to inhale the fragrance of the perfume.
To unnecessarily tie a bandage on the body.
To touch or to smell fragrant fruit and grass.
To stand under the cloth of the Ka'abah in such a way that the cloth touches the head or face.
To lay on one's stomach with one's face downwards on the pillow.
To eat uncooked fragrant smelling food.
To look with lust at the satar of one's wife.
To throw any garment, e.g. coat, over the shoulders.
Errors in Hajj and Kaffaarah
Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:
Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.
The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:
The prohibitions of Ihraam.
The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).
Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram. Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
To apply perfume.
For men to wear sewn clothes.
To cover the head and face.
To remove lice from one's body.
To kill lice.
To remove hair from the body.
To cut nails.
To indulge in sexual relationship.
To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.
Principles Governing the errors
There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors. First Principle: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:
The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.
The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.
The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.
The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.
If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.
If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.
If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
Second Principle:Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.
Thrid Principle: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:
Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.
To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.
Fourth Principle: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.
Fifth Principle: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa' (approximately 2.5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
Sixth Principle : The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.
Seventh Principle : Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered. This amount may be given in charity.
One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.
Eighth Principle: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
Ninth Principle: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.
Tenth Principle: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
Eleventh Principle: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.
Twelveth Principle: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin.
Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta'ala.
The Rules of Jinaayat
Some explanation and examples regarding the errors occurring during Hajj will now be given for better understanding. Sayee
If the whole Sayee or the greater number of its Shauts were omitted without reason or the Sayee was made riding, Without valid reason, the Hajj will be valid, but Dum is Waajib. However, if the Sayee is repeated on foot, the Dum penalty falls away. If one, two or three Shauts of Sayee were omitted without valid reason or executed while riding for no proper reason, Sadqah is Waajib for every Shaut. Wuqoof at Arafaat
If one failed to reach Arafaat on the 9th Zil Hijj before sunset, the Hajj is not valid. Qadhaa of the Hajj is now obligatory. The Hajj has to be repeated. It is essential to remain in Arafaat until sunset. If one leaves Arafaat before sunset, it is incumbent to return there before sunset otherwise Dum becomes Waajib. Wuqoof at Muzdalifah
It is Waajib to observe the tarteeb (consecutive order) of Maghrib and Isha Salaat. It is also Waajib to perform these two Salaats together at Muzdalifah. If the tarteeb was not observed or if the two Salaats were not performed together, Dum is obligatory.
If the Wuqoof of Muzdalifah is omitted without valid reason, Dum is Waajib. If omitted because of a valid reason, Dum is not Waajib. If women omit this Wuqoof because of the crowds and congestion, Dum is not Waajib, since such omission is on valid grounds in relation to females.
Rami
In the following cases of omission, Dum will be Waajib: * If the Rami of all four days is omitted.
* The whole Rami of any one day is omitted.
*The majority of the pebbles of a day is omitted, e.g. four pebbles on the 10th Zil Hijj were omitted or eleven pebbles of any other day.
In the following cases of omission, the full Sadqah is Waajib for every pebble omitted:
* On the 10th Zil Hijj, three or less pebbles were omitted.
* On the other days (11th,12th,13th), ten or less pebbles were omitted.
If the total amount of the Sadqah for all the pebbles omitted is equal to the price of a Dum, then Sadqah slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given.
May Allah accept your Ibaadat and HAJJ Acknowledgement: Afzal Amanullah, Consul General of India, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia).

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Some Useful Tips for Pilgrims

It is always better to familiarize yourself with different Holy sites and places before you proceed for Hajj. Video films on Hajj are a good means to attain this objective. Hajj Guides should be studied in detail. Look at the Hajj landmarks minutely. Remember Hajj does not involve much of duas or rituals. It requires more of etiquette because a pilgrim has to spend six days in company of an international assembly of people. Spirit of camaraderie, bon homie and fraternity must be nurtured. Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in modernizing Hajj facilities. We must use them carefully to get the best results. For instance, there may be taps that need not be turned. You just place your hand below and water will bubble out. These are sensor operated taps. Escalators are common in Haram Sharief and in toilets and bathrooms. Closets in underground Zam-zam well need just to be pressed for water jets to spring out. One can directly drink from them. Phones can be used conveniently with phone cards. Buy and keep a few cards. They avoid hassles for change. Some Indian pilgrims who use the brick or mud pellets for drying urine, carry them to flight toilets. These will surely choke the toilets and make them unusable for others. Such practices must be avoided. Use tissue paper instead. It is available in plenty on the plane. Use the places meant for specific purpose for the same purpose. For example, ·Do not make wuzu at Zamzam closets inside the Masjid e Haram. These closets are for drinking. ·Do not take bath at underground Zam-zam well. You can however pour water over head and drench your Ihram. ·Do not wash clothes at toilets in Mina or Arafaat. Washing can be postponed till your return to Makkah. ·Get your head shaved only at the Barber's saloons. The unauthorized Pakistani barbers may offer a concessional head shave at SR5 beneath the Jamaraat bridge. Avoid them. Because police whisks them away every now and then. If you engage them it is possible you will be left with with half shaven head. Do not carry gas or oil stoves to tent cities. They are hazardous. Buy cooked food. At Arafaat muallim and philanthropists distribute food packets. Avoid smoking inside tents. Buying Qurbani coupons of IDB is the easiest way to discharge your obligation to sacrifice. This meat is hygienically packed and sent to people in distress in different countries. This way you will also be contributing to a cause. Do not panic in times of emergencies. Mark the exit routes in advance. Fire is the greatest hazard. Take care of the old, infirm people and women. They are more vulnerable in such situation than others. Memorize every place, location or camp that is assigned to you for stay. Remember them in relation to the shops around, numbers inscribed or colours of signboards. Muzdalifah is usually the place where people get severed from their families or groups. Remember the route you take while going to toilets during the nightly stay at Muzdalifah. Traffic moves 'always from right' in Saudi Arabia. When you are crossing the road, look towards your left for incoming vehicles. Most pilgrims get hurt because they do not care for the local rule. Carry tablets for common ailments such as diarrhoea, fever, cold, pain etc. Saudi chemists dispense medicine only in packets. Tablets distributed by Indian dispensaries are generally of poor quality. Do not use tap water supplied in buildings for drinking anywhere on the pilgrimage route. This will cause you stomach problems. Either drink zam zam in the Haram Sharief or buy bottled water from the market. Makkah Municipality has erected zam zam water closets at various street corners for the convenience of pilgrims. Water can be stored from these closets. Often bottled water is distributed free of cost by philanthropists. Certain rites and rituals may be prescribed with particular schedules, for instance, stoning at Jamaraat may be preferred (afzal) during prescribed hours. But this may lead to over crowding and stampede. Do not insist on afzal schedule but look for convenience. Allah does not want pilgrims to risk their lives or incur injuries.

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The Rituals of Hajj and Umrah

It is always better to familiarize yourself with different Holy sites and places before you proceed for Hajj. Video films on Hajj are a good means to attain this objective. Hajj Guides should be studied in detail. Look at the Hajj landmarks minutely. Remember Hajj does not involve much of duas or rituals. It requires more of etiquette because a pilgrim has to spend six days in company of an international assembly of people. Spirit of camaraderie, bon homie and fraternity must be nurtured. Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in modernizing Hajj facilities. We must use them carefully to get the best results. For instance, there may be taps that need not be turned. You just place your hand below and water will bubble out. These are sensor operated taps. Escalators are common in Haram Sharief and in toilets and bathrooms. Closets in underground Zam-zam well need just to be pressed for water jets to spring out. One can directly drink from them. Phones can be used conveniently with phone cards. Buy and keep a few cards. They avoid hassles for change. Some Indian pilgrims who use the brick or mud pellets for drying urine, carry them to flight toilets. These will surely choke the toilets and make them unusable for others. Such practices must be avoided. Use tissue paper instead. It is available in plenty on the plane. Use the places meant for specific purpose for the same purpose. For example, · Do not make wuzu at Zamzam closets inside the Masjid e Haram. These closets are for drinking. · Do not take bath at underground Zam-zam well. You can however pour water over head and drench your Ihram. · Do not wash clothes at toilets in Mina or Arafaat. Washing can be postponed till your return to Makkah. · Get your head shaved only at the Barber's saloons. The unauthorized Pakistani barbers may offer a concessional head shave at SR5 beneath the Jamaraat bridge. Avoid them. Because police whisks them away every now and then. If you engage them it is possible you will be left with with half shaven head. Do not carry gas or oil stoves to tent cities. They are hazardous. Buy cooked food. At Arafaat muallim and philanthropists distribute food packets. Avoid smoking inside tents.

Buying Qurbani coupons of IDB is the easiest way to discharge your obligation to sacrifice. This meat is hygienically packed and sent to people in distress in different countries. This way you will also be contributing to a cause. Do not panic in times of emergencies. Mark the exit routes in advance. Fire is the greatest hazard. Take care of the old, infirm people and women. They are more vulnerable in such situation than others. Memorize every place, location or camp that is assigned to you for stay. Remember them in relation to the shops around, numbers inscribed or colours of signboards. Muzdalifah is usually the place where people get severed from their families or groups. Remember the route you take while going to toilets during the nightly stay at Muzdalifah. Traffic moves 'always from right' in Saudi Arabia. When you are crossing the road, look towards your left for incoming vehicles. Most pilgrims get hurt because they do not care for the local rule. Carry tablets for common ailments such as diarrhoea, fever, cold, pain etc. Saudi chemists dispense medicine only in packets. Tablets distributed by Indian dispensaries are generally of poor quality. Do not use tap water supplied in buildings for drinking anywhere on the pilgrimage route. This will cause you stomach problems. Either drink zam zam in the Haram Sharief or buy bottled water from the market. Makkah Municipality has erected zam zam water closets at various street corners for the convenience of pilgrims. Water can be stored from these closets. Often bottled water is distributed free of cost by philanthropists. Certain rites and rituals may be prescribed with particular schedules, for instance, stoning at Jamaraat may be preferred (afzal) during prescribed hours. But this may lead to over crowding and stampede. Do not insist on afzal schedule but look for convenience. Allah does not want pilgrims to risk their lives or incur injuries.

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