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MONTHLY    *    Vol 15-01 No:169    *   JANUARY 2001 / SHAWWAL 1421H


Hajj is obligatory (Fard) once in a life time
Information and Guidance to Hajj Pilgrims
Female Pilgrims : Avail the Concessions
Some Useful Tips for Pilgrims
Glossary of Arabic Terms

Hajj is obligatory (Fard) once in a life time

Hajj is one of the five institutions of Islam. The performance of Hajj as an enjoined duty and its superiority is in the statement of Allah Taala:
“Hajj (pilgrimage) to the House (Kaabah) is a duty that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the journey.
And whoever disbelieves (i.e. denies Hajj) then he is a disbeliever of Allah and Allah stands not in need of any of His Creatures.” (Surah Al-Imran 3:197)
Pilgrimage is a duty to be performed at least once in a lifetime by every adult Muslim, man or woman, who is free of sound mind and able to undertake it. It is highly important that every Muslim who has fulfilled the conditions which make him “ABLE” to perform pilgrimage should do so as soon as possible. If he postpones offering this duty from one year to another he may die before he has fulfilled his duty. He then meets his Lord having neglected a main pillar of Islam. It may happen that a person who slackens reaches old age, when pilgrimage becomes doubly difficult, before he has fulfilled his duty.
He who denies that pilgrimage is a duty of Muslims is not a Muslim but a Kafir, for, he denies a part of the religion of Islam which is necessarily known to every Muslim.

At the Outset

Besides mental preparation, the pilgrims must make the following arrangements prior to Hajj Journey
BEFORE you partake your journey to perform your hajj, there are certain things that you should always remember to do. Always remember that while you are performing your hajj, the rest of the world still moves the way it does. Thus, it is your responsibility to make sure that others will not be in any difficulty when you are away.
  • Seeking the advice of someone concerning the travelling for Hajj is one of the Prophetic etiquette of journey.

  • It is also advisable to ask Allah, Glory be to Him, for proper guidance in connection with the proposed time observing Hajj, not the Hajj itself.

  • Learning how to perform the rites of Hajj is an individual obligation.

  • One is requested to repent of all bad deeds.

  • Arrange to pay all debts, If you have monetary debts, repay and settle all debts or alternatively make arrangements for your debts to be paid.

  • If you are responsible for any moral transgression, then fulfill your debt or have it waived, and have your moral violations forgiven. It is important that one settles all outstanding matters and transactions, and has his faults and shortcomings forgiven. All Amaanah (trusts) and anything borrowed must be returned.

  • A detailed and final will must be made regarding all important matters.

  • If certain things are left in your trust, return those items to the owners or make arrangements for them to be looked after in your absence.

  • Make suitable arrangements for the maintenance of all those for whom you are responsible (wife, children and all dependants) until the time you return to them.

  • Take with you Halaal earnings which shall be sufficient to last and maintain you for the full journey to the Blessed Places, your residing there and your journey back.

  • In fact you should take the precaution of having something more than the normal needs, so that you may be in a position to assist needy ones on the way and to serve those who may be in need of it.

  • Before commencing the journey, perform two rakath, in which Surah Al-Kaafiroon is recommended to be recited in the first rakath and Surah Al-Ikhlaas to be recited in the second raka’ah. Take care that this salah (namaz) is not performed during the Makrooh times.

  • Give something in charity before your departure and also after the departure, because Sadaqah removes calamities from you.

  • Before departing you should meet all your friends and relatives. Bid them farewell and ask them to pray for you.

  • Appoint a Leader when the journey begins, choose among the co-travellers the most righteous, most intelligent, experienced, humble and forbearing person and appoint him as the ameer (leader). And it is important that when one becomes appointed to that position, he should carry out his responsibility conscientiously. He should take note of the needs of his companions and see to their comfort.


Information and Guidance to Hajj Pilgrims

Flight Schedule Hajj - 2001 / 1421 H


Date of Departure

Delhi  Jan. 27 To Feb. 26
Kolkatta (Calcutta) Jan. 27 To Feb. 13
Bangalore Jan. 27 To Feb. 11
Ahmadabad  Jan. 31 To Feb. 26 
Chennai  Feb. 12 To Feb. 21 
Hyderabad Feb. 14 To Feb. 26


PREPARATIONS for Hajj should normally start immediately after filling up of forms. Baggage should be light and you should bring suitcases of normal size that are easy to handle. You must put identification marks (name and address of the pilgrims) on them. Subsequently, the pilgrim pass number of the pilgrim should also be added to the identification marks on the luggage. Identification should be in the form of tags attached to the baggage and also details written on the baggage itself with an appropriate coloured indelible ink pen. Avoid taking gunny bags, sacks and other loose material. Suit cases should not have any pouches on the outside. Find out the weight of free baggage allowed on your plane. You must be careful to take less baggage since you would be carrying a number of items back from Saudi Arabia like dates (khajur), prayer mats (janamaz), zam-zam water, other assorted items like prayer caps (topi), prayer beads (Tasbeeh), etc. and such other items that you may wish to buy as gifts or for your own use.

Banned items in Saudi Arabia

Get to know of the items that are banned in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia before packing your luggage.

  • If you are bringing medicine for your personal use, you should bring the doctor’s prescription in original with you, otherwise medicine will be confiscated.

  • Do not bring cooking oil, kerosene, flour, perishable items or other stuff that the customs officials may have objection to or may have problems in identifying.

  • Do not carry any gift or packet given to you by any one, not even by your relatives and friends. If carrying such a thing becomes essential then you must thoroughly inspect the packet that you are to carry since you will be personally held responsible and liable if it contains any objectionable thing.

  • Please remember that even magazines, photographs, books and religious literature as also audio and video cassettes may be confiscated at the customs.

  • Drugs invoke the death penalty. Liquor is banned.

Meningitis Vaccination

Remember to take your Meningitis vaccination at least 10 days before embarkation and to keep the certificate along with a photocopy of the same. (The original with you and the photocopy in your luggage).

Luggage and Baggage

All items of baggage should be marked before departure by tags and writings which should include at least the name of the pilgrim and the pilgrim pass number.

Ensure Safety of Documents

  • Please ensure that photocopies of your pilgrim pass, your Meningitis certificate, your bank draft, your ticket and other necessary documents like doctor’s prescription, etc. are kept in a separate folder in your luggage. The original pilgrim pass, Meningitis certificate, bank draft, ticket and other essential papers should be carried by you on your person in the hand baggage that you are carrying and this hand baggage should also be properly marked for identification.

  • Please ensure that your hand baggage is never out of your sight from the time you reach your airport in India till the time you reach your room in Makkah (Saudi Arabia).

  • You must start making other preparations for your journey like booking your railway or bus tickets, or other transport for travel from your home to the city and airport from where you are to embark for Saudi Arabia.

  • You must also ensure that you have a proper place to stay at this embarkation point. If you are advanced in age, you must have a companion accompanying you from home till this embarkation airport.

  • Get photocopies of all your medical records, purchase your medicine and get the doctor’s prescription for the same.

  • Purchase necessary items like pyjamas, kurtas, shirts, lungis, underwears, slippers, shoes, caps, sweaters, blankets, toilet mug (lota), water bottle, soap, toothpaste, toothbrush, comb, socks, handkerchief and such items that are necessary for your journey.

  • Please have some extra ropes, twines, a few polythene bags, a small torch, a few cells, notepad, pen etc. in your hand baggage.

  • You must remember that you have to travel light and so, for example, if you are accustomed to wearing kurta and pyjama then you must carry only 4-5 (washable) sets of the same.

  • Remember that Hajj season is now in the relatively colder months and hence you need to have a sweater and blanket for your protection. Your rooms in Makkah and Madinah and the tents in Mina may be air-conditioned and hence you will feel cold, especially during night. Even in the Haram Sharief at Makkah and Madinah, most of the portion is air-conditioned.

  • Start taking long walks every day in preparation for the walks that you will need to make during the course of Hajj and at Makkah and Madinah. This will build up your stamina and accustom your body to such long distance walking.


Dos and Don’ts

  • You must know the conditions of Ihraam and how the Ihraam garments are to be put on for men and what are the Ihraam garments for women.

  • For men it is just two pieces of unstitched cloth, one to be wrapped around the waist and one to be thrown around the shoulder, preferably of white colour. No under garments, caps or socks are to be worn. There are also other conditions prior to and after wearing of the Ihraam clothes.

  • You have to shave/cut the hair of your armpit and pubic region, cut your nails, have a bath, comb your hair and then put on the Ihraam clothes.

  • For women, after cutting of extra body hair, nails and having bath they can put on their normal clothes. The condition for them is that their head, specially the hair, should be covered fully and that only their face and hands up to the wrist are visible. They can wear undergarments and socks.

  • For men, there is a restriction on the type of footwear that is to be used. The slipper or shoe should be such as to make the metatarsals of the foot visible and which do not cover the ankles.

  • You must also be aware that you have to pray two rakaths (sunnat of Ihraam) after you have worn the Ihraam clothes and make the intention of Umrah or Hajj (as is proper) and then the recitation of the Talbiyah, (Labbaik, Allahummah Labbaik ......) at the appropriate time as instructed by your religious scholars.

  • Combing of hair, cutting of nails, getting angry, using abusive language, slaughtering animals, physical relations with partner, use of perfume, etc. are prohibited during the state of Ihraam.


Please follow these instructions on the plane
  • You must come on the flight allotted to you. Coming to Saudi Arabia out of turn on different flight upsets the management and administration at the Saudi Arabian end and causes inconvenience to all.

  • At the airport, you must make sure that all your hand baggage and luggage have been properly identified and that they have your name and pilgrim pass number on them, that you are in possession of your pilgrim pass, boarding pass, Meningitis certificate, bank draft, plane ticket, baggage keys and other documents like doctor’s prescription, etc.

  • Please ensure that your baggage is checked in properly by Air India and when you board the aircraft and take your seat in the airplane please check your hand baggage again to ensure that all your documents are there. If you find any of your document missing you must immediately get off the plane and tell the authorities about whatever document you have lost. It does not matter if you have to postpone your travel by a few days but you must travel to Saudi Arabia with all your documents.

  • Wear the metal bracelet given by the Hajj Committee before getting into the plane. Never take it off, even during bath or wudu. Keep it on for the entire duration of your pilgrimage, till your reach back your home in India.

  • Inside the aircraft, follow the instruction regarding belt, life jackets and breathing mask. All these will be shown to you by the flight crew.

  • If you are not accustomed to using the toilets on the plane you must ask some one who has travelled on a plane to explain to you how to use the toilet. This you must do before you board the plane. This is very important for yourself as well as for your fellow passenger’s convenience. The toilet room in the plane is very small and the doors open and shut in a peculiar fashion and you must ask your flight attendant in case you are not aware of it. Only on proper locking from inside do the full toilet lights turn on. The toilets are European style and you have to sit on those toilets by putting down the seat rim. Once you have used the toilet you have to lift the seat rim back again. You must not put any tissue paper inside the toilet. For disposal of tissue paper there is separate space in the toilet. In case you have any doubt about the use of toilet you must ask the attendant.

  • The same is the case with the use of the wash basin. You must ask about their operation in case you do not know. Normally wash basins have two gadgets which when pressed will give you hot and cold water. There is also another gadget which when pushed releases the bottom of the sink to drain out the water. After using the toilet and wash basin you must wipe it with tissue paper available there so that it is left clean for use of your fellow passengers.

  • During the flight you must fill in the Immigration slips (forms), which should be given to you by the Air India crew. These are required by the Saudi authorities. Please fill these slips properly. If you are not able to fill it up take the help of your fellow passengers or the flight crew. You must keep this filled up slips inside your pilgrim pass so that you may clear immigration quickly after landing at Jeddah. You must not keep the pilgrim pass and immigration cards of others, as ladies and gents will be separated at immigration and, therefore, each person should have custody of their own documents and papers.

  • While disembarking at the Jeddah Hajj Terminal, the Air India crew will give you an extra food packet. This is for you to consume while waiting in the Hajj Terminal holding area for the buses that are to transport you to Makkah.

Immigration and Customs

  • After deplaning you will be brought to a hall where you will be asked to wait. From here people, in small batches, separately for men and women, are taken into the immigration hall. In the waiting hall there are toilets which you can use. In the immigration hall if you have filled in your immigration card properly there will be no problem and you will pass through immigration. Air India’s agents are available in the waiting hall in case you still need help to fill up the immigration slips (forms).

  • After immigration you will come into the customs areas in which your baggage would be lying or would be coming. You should identify your baggage, and take it to the custom counter. Be prepared to open the baggage where the customs officials will inspect and search it and then you will have to close it and take it out. After you come out of the customs hall, the luggage will be loaded on trolleys while you will have to pass through an enclosure which has the officials of the United Agents Office (Maktabul-Wukula al Muahad) present. Here they will check your pilgrim pass to see whether your compulsory dues have been paid and issue you bus coupons for your (various) journeys within the Kingdom. Compulsory dues of Hajj Committee pilgrims are paid directly by the Hajj Committee through the Consulate to the Maktabul-Wukula.

Indian Consulate General at Jeddah

After this, you will be able to come out of the enclosure where officers from the Indian Consulate General at Jeddah would greet and take you along with your luggage in the trolley to the holding area for Indian pilgrims that is earmarked for you. Here the Consulate General of India provides you with necessary medical and administrative facilities. It may take approximately two hours for you to clear immigration, customs and Maktabul-Wukula counter. The Jeddah Hajj Terminal is a very big and open area with hundreds of shops, toilets and offices. It is very easy to get lost in this complex. For your convenience the Consulate General has put Indian flags at regular intervals which would lead you to the Indian holding area. Also many of the officers on duty wear T-shirts or caps which have the India colours and “India” written in various Indian languages. You must not panic if you lose your way. Please be guided by the flags and or ask some one for direction to the Indian Hajj Office at the airport or to the Indian holding area at the airport.

The Indian Hajj Office is situated in the “C-2” Octagonal in the Hajj Terminal. This is in the opposite direction of Bay number 10 of the airport. It would be advisable that after you get out of the Maktabul-Wukula al Muahad enclosure you go in batches of 10-15 along with your luggage with Consulate officials to the holding area allotted to pilgrims of your flight.

At the holding area you must make sure that your luggage is unloaded there. You must be careful that you do not go into the holding area of any other country or to the holding area which is having pilgrims from a different flight from India. In the holding area, the administrative officers of the Consulate would put stickers on your pilgrim pass indicating your building number and room number in Makkah and your Moallim’s name and Maktab number.

Doctors would be there to attend to any of your medical problem that may require attention. If you have to go to the toilet or to have food, or tea at the Hajj Terminal, make sure that you do not leave any of your hand baggage or your watch or valuables unattended.

Be specially careful while you are using the toilet or any other facility. There are a lot of cases of theft in the toilet areas and in the tea areas at the airport.

Bank Draft

You will have to encash your bank draft at the airport. Consulate officials will direct you to the bank counters where you must queue up in an orderly fashion to encash your bank drafts. In case you have any difficulty in encashing the bank draft you must take the assistance of the Consulate officials or Indian bank officials who will be there to assist you. There are instances when pilgrims forget where they have put their bank drafts. You must search all your luggage and your baggage and even your person to find out where the bank draft is. It would be better that all your documents are in your hand baggage itself.

Do not tamper with bank drafts. Do not laminate Bank Drafts.

After you take the money from the counter, check that it is of the correct value. There have been cases of under and over payments in the past. Remember you have come for Hajj and even one wrong deed like accepting extra money from the bank would mean that you have done something wrong and your whole Hajj would be questionable. After encashing your bank drafts you must immediately get back to your holding area and from there you would be taken in batches along with your baggage to board buses for Makkah. Encashment of bank drafts of all pilgrims of one flight may take 3 to 4 hours or even more. Familiarise yourself with the size and colour of the Saudi Riyal notes and their denomination - 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500. Be careful about the difference between 20 and 200 Riyal notes, they appear similar.

Bus to Makkah

Please ensure when you board buses for Makkah that you and your family members are together and that all your luggage is loaded on the same bus that you are to travel in. It is your personal responsibility to ensure that your luggage is not separated from you or put on a different bus. The average time that a pilgrim would spend at the airport would be in the range of 5-6 hours. This is mainly due to the problem of encashment of bank drafts at the airport. Be prepared for such delays.

Have your food that Air India gives to you while you are in the holding area. Fill up your water bottle. Remember you have entered the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on a holy pilgrimage.

Hajj will entail a lot of physical hardships. You are in Ihraam and you have to observe the strict conditions of Ihraam and one of which is that you should not lose your temper. Do not get angry or abusive. Tolerate and accept things in a steadfast manner.

When your bus leaves the Hajj Terminal for Makkah, start reciting the Talbiyah. Men to recite loudly while women softly. The bus journey from Jeddah to Makkah will take nearly two hours and you will be taken first to the Maktab (office) of the Moallim where you will be issued identity cards and yellow wrist bands. This may take another one hour. After this you would be taken to your building where you are to stay. Please ensure that your luggage is off loaded at your building. This is your personal responsibility. Yellow is the colour of the South Asian Mossassa of Makkah. You will have yellow wrist bands. The Moallim camp in Mina will have yellow boards. Location of camps in Arafat will be marked by yellow pillars.


You must occupy the room that you have been allotted to in the building and carry all your luggage inside. You must ensure that you do not leave any of your luggage outside as it may get lost. Some one might even take it away, steal it. Therefore, (I insist) that you must have only so much of luggage that you can personally lift and carry. A thin mattress and a pillow is provided for each pilgrim on the floor.

Remember that each pilgrim is allowed only 2.5 sq. mtrs. of space on the floor in a room. Therefore, if your room has more capacity, other pilgrims would be sharing the room too.

In case you have come in a big group, you may be accommodated in more than one room. There are two categories of accommodation in Makkah prescribed by the Hajj Committee, Mumbai.

Category-I is of new buildings between 0-600 meters from the outer periphery of the Haram Sharief.

Category-II is of old buildings between 0-1000 meters from the outer periphery of the Haram Sharief.

You must have a good look at your building, have a look at the kitchen facilities, have a look at the toilets, have a look at the lifts, and also get to know and familiarise yourself with the functioning of the air-conditioners in the room, the toilet flushes, the wash basins, the bath showers, etc. You must also familiarise yourself with the fire fighting equipment in your building and you must know which way to exit in case of a fire or emergency. Look for the emergency exits and the stairs.

You must remember that in case of fire, you should not use the lift, rather you should use the staircase/other exits.

You have to be very courteous towards your fellow pilgrims who are sharing the room with you or the same bath room and toilet facilities or the same kitchen. You also have to be very accommodating and considerate to your neighbours in other rooms. You must ensure that you go out of your building much before prayer time as exactly at prayer time you will find a lot of rush for the lift or the stair case in which case you may even miss your prayer if you are not careful.

After arrival in your building from Jeddah Hajj Terminal, the Moallim normally serves one courtesy meal to his pilgrims.

You must perform your Umrah immediately after that. For this, the Moallim has to provide you with a guide. If he is not able to do so, the Consulate recruits a number of Indian boys who are studying in the University at Makkah and who are well-versed with the rituals of Umrah to help you. If you are coming from India, you would most probably be performing Hajj in the Tamattu fashion in which when you arrive from India in Ihraam you will have to perform your Umrah first. After the Umrah you will get out of the state of Ihram. You will again get into the state of Ihraam for Hajj on the 8th of Zill Hajj before you leave for Mina.

(Subsequently you can perform Nafil Umrah or Umrah on behalf of close relatives who are no more. For this you will have to go to the Meeqat at Masjid-e-Ayesha or Tanaeem, get into the state of Ihraam and come to the Haram Sharief for Umrah. Taxies are available for taking you to the Meeqat and bring you back at cheap rates. (You can ask your religious guide for more details on this.) Arrival in Makkah/Umrah: On arrival at Makkah go to the toilet, wash, eat, do your wudu and go for Umrah. Go in a group. On the way from your building to the Haram Sharief, you must be careful to identify the road by which you are going. You must also know the building in which you are staying and its outside appearance. Get the name of the building, the street name, the location and telephone number, if available.

Do not carry any sizeable amount of money. There are cases of theft in the Haram Sharief. You must carry only small amount of money when you go for your Umrah. Look at the road and the establishments that you are going by so that you can easily identify where you are and what is the route to the Haram Sharief. One very common problem faced is that if you are going to the Haram Sharief during the day, and when you come out at night, you will suddenly find the whole environment has changed due to the numerous lights. You may feel that you have lost the way. Do not panic. You have your identity card, you have your metal bracelet and you have the Hajj Committee card on your person and you can ask any one for the way to your building or to the Indian Hajj Offices or to any of the branch office or dispensary, from where you will be guided to your building by the Consulate staff. The Hajj offices and Dispensaries have India colour boards and flags outside for easy identification.

While going to the Haram Sharief you are to recite the Talbiyah and try and enter the Haram Sharief through the gate known as Bab-as-Salaam with your eyes on the ground and once you enter and your guide asks you to look up you should look up and have a full view of the Kaabah. You can stand and supplicate there. It is believed that when you first set sight on the house of Allah (Kaabah) and you make your dua, that, Insha Allah, Allah will accept your dua.


The Umrah consists of the Tawaaf (seven circumambulation of the Kaabah) and the Sayee (seven trips between Safaa and Marwah).

Tawaaf : Remember that for men, in the first three rounds of the Tawaaf you are to uncover your right shoulder and walk at a brisk pace. Also remember that at the point of alignment of the Hajr-Aswad (Black Stone) you are to face the Black Stone, make your Niyat and recite the words Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar Wallillahil Hamd and then start your circumambulation of the Kaabah. At the end of each circumambulation, at this same alignment, you face the Black Stone and recite the same words. There are no required or prescribed supplications to recite during the Tawaaf. However, you can recite those from authentic books. It is best if you also know the meaning of your supplication.

Between the corner of Yemen (Rukn-e-Yemani) and the Black Stone, the Prophet (Pbuh) recited Rabbana Aatina Fid-duniya..... You should do the same.

After seven circumambulations are over, you have to say two rakaths of prayer (wajib), preferably (if there is space) behind the station of Ibrahim (Muqaam-e-Ibrahim). The Prophet (Pbuh) in the first rakath recited Surah Fatiha followed by Surah Kafirun and in the second rakath recited Surah Fatiha followed by Surah Ikhlas. If there is no space behind the station of Ibrahim, the two rakaths of prayers can be said anywhere in the Haram Sharief.

Zam Zam : After this, you must drink zam-zam water. The zam-zam well is there in the Haram Sharief itself. Also, there are zam-zam cans all over in the Haram Sharief with plastic glasses. The fresh glasses are kept on the right side of the zam-zam container from where you can pick up one glass and after pouring your drink and drinking you must put the used glass on the left side of the container. In case your throat is bad you must use the zam-zam water that is not cold. This is identifiable on the container in green or blue letters which says that this is the normal temperature zam-zam water. All other cans have cold zam-zam inside them.

Sayee : After Tawaaf, two rakaths prayer and drinking zam-zam water you have to perform the Sayee which is the walk between Safaa and Marwah seven times. One trip between Safa and Marwah is counted as one, the trip between Marwah and Safa is counted as two, and so on, till the 7th trip when you end up at Marwah. When you are at Safa and Marwah you are supposed to stand, face the Kaabah each time and praise Allah, say your duas and supplicate. For men, they have to walk fast or run between the two green lights indicated on the ceiling of the Safa-Marwah walk way on each trip. There are no special supplications to recite during the Sayee. However, you may use those that are available in authentic books. As mentioned above, there are no prescribed duas or supplications for the Tawaaf or Sayee and you can pray whatever you like praise Allah and ask Allah for His forgiveness, blessings, and mercy, recite portions of the Quran and whatever else you want. There are good duas in some of the books that you may be having. You must understand their meaning and you may recite those which you like during the Tawaaf and Sayee.

After the Sayee is over at Marwah you have to get a hair cut or a head shave; women have to have only their hair cut from at least three place the length of one phalange of her finger, approximately 1 or 1.5 inches. Many people say that it is preferable for men to have a head shave rather than a hair cut in your first Umrah. There are some other school of thought which says that if you are very close to the Hajj then during your Umrah you have to only have your hair cut and during the Hajj you should have your head shaved. For women it is only the hair cut. Follow your religious guide on these aspects.

This completes your Umrah and if you have time you can pray two rakaths of Nafil prayer to thank Allah that your Umrah has been performed and pray Allah that He accepts your Ibaadat.

After this you can take off the Ihraam clothes and get into normal clothes. This you can do when you go back to your room.

If you are doing Hajj in the Qiran from, you cannot cut or shave your hair. You have to continue in Ihraam till the Hajj. Remember that in the Haram Sharief of Makkah, the Tahayat of the Masjid is the Tawaaf. In case you are not able to do this you may do your two rakaths of Tahayat.

In the Haram Sharief you must always carry a plastic bag to keep your slippers near you. Also carry a prayer mat in case there is too much rush and you have to say prayers in the open. The semi-circular structure next to the Kaabah is the Hateem. It is part of the Kaabah and prayers can be offered there except obligatory prayers.

After each Farz [obligatory] prayer in the Haram Sharief you must wait for at least one minute because on most occasions after the Farz prayers there is a Namaze-Janaza [Salaatul Janaaza].

On all religious aspects consult your religious guide or book. the rituals mentioned here are those that are generally practised.

In the Haram Sharief there is a special dispensation that if it is very crowded you can walk in front of other people who are praying. So, in case it is unavoidable you can do this.

Haram Sharief

On your journey to and from the Haram Sharief, if you are using an umbrella to protect you from the sun, make sure that you do not hurt anyone with it. The Haram Sharief of Makkah has a basement, a main floor, the first floor and the terrace. When the crowd gets big even the outside spaces are filled up to a long distance. The thing you must ensure in your prayers is that there should not be a gap between the rows. So, you must first see that there is no space inside the Haram Sharief and only then you should pray outside. You will come across many pilgrims who are sitting outside the Haram Sharief and praying even though there is space inside. This should be avoided. Be very careful when you walk outside/inside the Haram Sharief on the marble floors. Even one drop of water makes it very slippery. Many people have hurt themselves by slipping on the floor. Outside the Haram Sharief, there are very good toilets and wudukhanas [places to perform wudu] and it is not necessary that every time you go to your room to wash and come back for prayers. You can stay in the Haram Sharief and do your wudu in the wudukhanas there itself. However, you have to be very careful that during the wudu if you are taking off your watch and other valuables it is not snatched or stolen. The Arabic word for “thief” is Haraami.


You must now attend to arrangements regarding your meals. Many restaurants and eating places give cheap food including roti, rice, dal, vegetables and chicken at nominal prices. Roti or bread are very cheap and fruits are also available in plenty. You must make sure arrangements by discussing with other pilgrims, local staff and shopkeepers where best you can take your meals. The suggestion is that for breakfast you can have fresh fruits, bread, eggs and milk or fruit juices and for lunch and dinner you can have normal meals with rice, roti, vegetables and non-vegetarian dishes. Avoid dishes which have too much of oil. If you are a non-vegetarian, prefer to have eggs and chicken only. Have a lot of fresh fruit and fresh vegetables like carrot, etc. You must drink plenty of water during the course of the day. The zam-zam water is available free in and around the Haram Sharief. At other places you will have to buy your water every time. Water is not very expensive to buy. You must take care of your room, the appliances provided and the toilet facilities in a proper manner so that both you and your fellow pilgrims are not put to any discomfort. Avoid wasting water or using too much water. During the peak Hajj period if water finishes in your building due to excessive use, water tankers cannot bring water to your building. For washing of clothes, utensils, bathing and cooking purposes you have to economise on the use of water. If there are leaking taps or toilets, you must immediately bring this to the notice of the caretaker of the building (Haaris) and the building supervisor deputed by the Consulate. Do not allow visitors inside your building or room even if you know them. Meet them outside your building. You are not supposed to keep friends, relatives, extra persons in your room.


There are 9 branch dispensaries and 9 branch offices for your convenience opened by the Consulate in various areas which house Indian pilgrims at Makkah. All Indians are welcome to use these facilities. Additionally, there is a main Indian Hajj Office and Dispensary in the Misfala area of Makkah.

Telephone numbers

You must keep the telephone numbers of your branch office, branch dispensary, main Indian Hajj office and main Indian dispensary along with the telephone number of your Moallim, his Maktab number and the contact telephone numbers of your friends or relatives in Makkah, Madinah and Jeddah. You must carry them on your person so that it is available with you always. You must also carry some loose change (coins) which you can use in case you need to ring any of these places. Ask some one about how to use the telephone facilities which are available in plenty in Makkah and Madinah. There are a number of manned ring booths for your convenience also. For these, Riyal notes will be acceptable. You must remember to telephone your relatives back in India every two or three days to inform them about your welfare. If, God forbid, any emergency arises during the course of the Hajj and even if it does not affect you personally, you must immediately go to the nearest telephone booth and telephone your relatives in India about your welfare. This you must always keep in mind.

Nafil Umrah

Ask your religious guide or your companions about the performance of extra (Nafil) Umrah and Umrah on behalf of your near and dear ones who are no longer in this world. Try and do as many Tawaafs as possible and spend most of your time in Ibaadat. Refrain from idle gossip or anger or any loose talk. Try to be accommodative to everyone. Remember that during the whole period of Hajj your conduct has to be such that Allah is pleased with you and accepts your Ibaadat. You have to be on your best behaviour and at all times you must sincerely repent any sin that you may have committed during your life time. Always bear in mind that even after you take off your Ihraam a number of conditions still apply to the Hajj pilgrim and these conditions entail truthfulness, compassion to fellow beings, good conduct, good thoughts, exemplary behaviour, desisting from anger and outburst, desisting from physical violence and so on.

Haram Sharief : It is easy to get lost in the Haram Sharief which is very big. Therefore, when you enter the Haram Sharief go inside and look around from inside the courtyard. There are five coloured gates leading outside. You must remember the colour of the gate which leads to your house in Makkah. This is the easiest way to remember. All the gates of the Haram Sharief are numbered, for your convenience. After this, you must look and see the way and familiarise yourself with the topography of the area in which you are staying and the topography and lay-out of the Haram Sharief. If you get lost and cannot find the way, ask some one to guide you to any Indian Hajj office or dispensary. Many shopkeepers and people that you find in and around the Haram Sharief and Makkah speak a little bit of Urdu and English. So, even if you just say “India” or “Al-Hind” to any one they should be able to guide you. The Arabic word for office is ‘Maktab’. So, ‘Maktab Al-Hind’ would signify that you want to find out the Indian office. Do not panic. It might be one or two or three hours but some one will tell you the way to an Indian branch or main office and from there you will be guided to your building. The idea is that if you get lost, you must first find your way to the Haram Sharief and in and around the Haram Sharief try and get your bearings. If that is not possible then start asking people if they can direct you to any Indian Hajj office. You must make this very clear to your fellow pilgrims, especially those who cannot read or write or who are very old. There are also Consulate officials, Khadimul Hujjaj and volunteers who would be wearing ‘India’ T-shirts and caps. They are to help you and guide you. They would be present outside the Haram Sharief after each prayer to help pilgrims.

Health Care

You must take care of your health and keep yourself protected from the hot sun and the cool nights as well as the cool temperatures inside your rooms. Drink plenty of water and try and eat citrus fruits to build up your resistance. The doctors and dispensaries are there to help in case you need medication. The common complaints are of dehydration, sun-stroke, cold and cough, flu, upset stomach, scraped thighs and blisters on the feet. You have to take care of your health yourself with the help of our doctors and nurses.

Over to Madinah

If you are coming to Saudi Arabia by 20th or 21st of Dhul Qada you will be able to move to Madinah between 36-48 hours of your arrival at Makkah. Otherwise your Madinah movement will be after the Hajj. The Moallim will announce the time the buses would arrive at your house, but be prepared for delays in the arrival of buses. Do not get upset or angry.

When the buses arrive you must load your luggage on the same bus that you are travelling in and if you have to go to the toilet you must go to the toilet before boarding the bus. In many cases, the buses stop mid way between Makkah and Madinah after a two or three hour run. Keep this in mind before boarding the bus.

Be sure that you are back in the bus at the appointed time. If you are left behind you will have problems. Always carry your identification card and if you are left behind you may have to take a ride from people coming in cars and buses. You have to tell them to drop you at the pilgrim reception centre (PRC) in Madinah where you will have to find out when the bus reaches Madinah it halts at the pilgrim reception centre outside Madinah where pilgrims are checked by the PRC staff. The Consulate staff is also present to help pilgrims. The bus then goes to the house in Madinah where you will be put up. Normally, three or four contractors in Madinah are given contract for housing Indian pilgrims by the Hajj Committee, Mumbai, and you will go to one of these contractor’s buildings. In Madinah, there is only one category of accommodation, and all pilgrims have to be accommodated within 750 meters of the Haram Sharief. It is your luck if the contractor houses you in closer buildings and/or in better buildings. In Madinah you must be careful to note down and know which building you are in and you must get the exact name, address and telephone number (if available) of that building.

Do not leave your luggage or your family members to take care of your luggage while you rush off to the Masjid-e-Nabvi for prayers. First ensure that you are accommodated in a room and that your luggage is in the room. Only then after getting the name and address of the building and your room number should you go for prayers, this is important.

Indians believe that saying 40 prayers in succession in Madinah has great rewards. However, there are various schools of thought on this and you must follow whatever you feel is correct or good for you. As you know, for women during their menstruation, Allah has dispensed with their prayers for this period. You must know how Salaam is said at the Prophet’s (Pbuh) Rouzah (grave). The Prophet’s two companions, Hazrat Abubaker Siddiqui and Hazrat ‘Umar, are also laid to rest there and you must know what to recite when you are there. The arrangements for men is very simple in the Masjid-e-Nabvi.

For women, the authorities have specified certain timings when they are allowed near the Rouzah. Please find out these timings for women.

You should also say some prayers in the area known as ‘Riyazul Jannah” in the Masjid-e-Nabvi if there is not too much crowding.

There are restrictions on entrance to the Jannatul-Baqui graveyard. Women are sometimes restricted from even approaching it. Both in Makkah and Madinah if you have women members in your group you must tell them to wait for you at a specified place. They should not go looking for you while you go looking for them. In this case, there are chances that both of you get lost (and upset). One member or group must stay at a fixed place while others are looking for them. You must settle this within your group. Get acquainted with the lay-out of the Masjid-e-Nabvi and topography of Madinah. Visually mark out the landmarks and your route. The Masjid-e-Nabvi has gates with numbers and names. Remember the gate number and the name of the gate through which you enter and come out. In Madinah, the Consulate has a main office and dispensary and two or three branch offices and branch dispensaries in the areas where pilgrims are to stay. There are a number of people who would be there to help you, to guide and take care of your basic medical needs.


It is seen that pilgrims normally do a lot of shopping in Madinah. You must plan your shopping in advance and do not hurry to buy the first thing that you like. You can have a look at the various markets and decide on the type, quality and price of the article. Bargaining for a good price is a common phenomenon and all shopkeepers, except the super stores, do reduce prices. You must also take into account the weight of the luggage that you are allowed to carry free to India. Remember that if you exceed the prescribed weight, you will have to pay excess baggage charges at the Jeddah airport on your way back to India. Otherwise your luggage would not be loaded on the plane. You should also note that electronic goods are available in India in plenty and at cheaper rates. Hence, you must know exactly what to buy. People even buy watches which they can get in India. Remember that you have a restriction on the weight that can be carried in the plane.

Return form Madinah

After 8 days of stay in Madinah which would give you sufficient time for 40 prayers, you will be brought to Makkah to your original building. Many pilgrims don the Ihraam on the way back from Madinah at the Meeqat and come to Makkah for performing another Umrah. Find out the details on this. When you stop at the Meeqat find out exactly how much time the bus will stop there and make sure that you are not left behind. If it is convenient during your stay in Madinah you can say prayers at the Masjid-e-Quba also, which has great rewards.

Do not try to make friends in Makkah, Madinah and other places that you visit. If you do not know a person from before do not try and strike up friendship with him unless he is your co-pilgrim and staying with you or is your neighbour. A number of pilgrims have been cheated by confidence trickers who gain your confidence and then take money from you to buy things at cheaper rates. People have been tricked into even parting with money for the sacrifice that is supposed to be done after Hajj at Mina on the 10th of Zill Hajj . Be careful about your money and always carry your identification papers and always wear your metal wrist band.

Traffic - Right hand Drive

Both at Makkah and Madinah and at other places where you are to go, be very careful in crossing roads, especially main roads and highways. Traffic is very fast on these roads and a number of pilgrims get injured or die because of their own negligence. You must warn all your group members about crossing roads in the Kingdom. The vehicle drivers will not stop or decrease their speed if you are crossing the road. You are supposed to be on alert for vehicles coming on the road. Do not try running across roads. Wait till traffic eases before crossing, even if you have to wait for a long time. Be patient.

Unlike in India the driving in Saudi Arabia is Right hand driving, hence when you are crossing the road you should look to the left side for any vehicles coming on the road.


In case of theft or accident or any eventuality you must report the matter to the nearest policeman or official and also to the nearest Indian Haj office like your branch Haj officer or even your doctor and nurse, and your Moallim/his Maktab. For pilgrims arriving close to the Haj, their Madinah movement is not done immediately after their arrival at Makkah. Rather they are sent to Madinah only after the Haj is over and from Madinah after spending 8 days they are sent straight to the Jeddah Haj Terminal for departure to India.

In case of pilgrims who have done the Madinah Ziarath before Hajj, they will be in Makkah, do the Haj on the appointed dates, and then will be sent to Jeddah Hajj Terminal from Makkah for the return journey to India.

In Makkah as the Hajj approaches you will find that the city is bursting with people. A lot of civic problems arise. You must be careful about your cash and valuables if you are taking them out of your room. You must be careful to ensure that water is conserved in your building and is not wasted, because in these days water becomes scarce and even water tankers find it difficult to enter into many areas due to overcrowding on the roads. Your Moallim can also take care of your cash and valuables but you must insist on a proper receipt if you are leaving money with him. Do not give any cash or valuables to anyone else than in the office of the Moallim to a proper person who should give you a proper receipt (Fatura) for the same.


About buildings, medical complaints and other problems that you may have such as misplaced or lost baggage etc. should be immediately reported to the concerned branch office of the Indian Consulate or the branch dispensary of the Consulate. These officers who are deputed for looking after your welfare would be willing to help you to the maximum possible extent. However, please remember that the Indian Consulate officials and staff who are deputed to look after you have a great limitation in the sense that they have no control over the local system of administration or policing or medical and civic dispensations. They have to work within very limited spheres, but they would try their utmost to help you overcome your problems.

Lost and Found

For your convenience a lost and found baggage cell along with a store room functions at branch office no. 1 in Misfala area of Makkah.


In case of hospitalisation, the Consulate doctors would ensure that you are well looked after in the Saudi hospitals and Indian doctors would be regularly monitoring your progress in the hospitals. There are a number of natural deaths and some accidental deaths each year during Hajj. In such cases the Moallim reports the death officially. The formal death certificate takes time. However, all natural deaths and accidental deaths should also be reported instantly to the Indian Consulate officials and doctors who would help in expediting the formalities of the deceased pilgrims. You must always remember that you have to take care of yourself in the best possible manner, protect yourself from extreme heat and cold, drink plenty of water, avoid carrying cash and valuables in crowded areas, do not befriend unknown persons, always think positively and of good things, spend most of your time in Ibaadat, do not waste time in idle gossip or get angry and abusive. Remember that you have come for Hajj and this whole period (since you embarked from your home in India to the time when you reach your home back in India) the full period you are under prohibition and your Hajj would be meaningful and your Ibaadat acceptable if you please Allah with your thoughts, actions, deeds, repentance and prayers.

Hajj is performed in the following manner

1. On the 8th of Zill Hajj

Pilgrims would get into the state of Ihraam after following the prescribed procedure and observing the conditions and then will be transported to Mina. Here you should pray your Zuhar, Asar, Magrib and Isha prayers and stay there for the night. This is the Sunnah of the Prophet (Pbuh).

2. On the 9th of Zill Hajj

After the Fajr prayers you will leave Mina for Arafat. At Arafat you say your Zuhar and Asar prayers. This is the main ritual of Hajj. Being in the state of Ihraam and praying on the plains of Arafat partly during the day and partly during evening is the Hajj. After the Magrib Azaan, pilgrims have to move to Muzdalifa which is between Arafat and Mina. At Muzdalifa pilgrims have to camp for the night and at whatever late hour they reach Muzdalifa they have to say their Magrib and Isha prayers together. You can also pick up small stone pebbles for stoning the Jamarat (Satan) at Mina on the following days.

3. On the 10th of Zill Hajj

After Fajr prayers pilgrims will move from Muzdalifa to Mina. Here they will stone the big Jamarat only (Ramy), do their sacrifice (Qurbani of Hajj), have their hair cut (Qasr) or head shaved (Halq). They can now get out of the state of Ihraam.

On the 10th of Zill Hajj or on the subsequent two days pilgrims have to perform the Tawaaf (Tawaaf-e-Ziyarah) and Sayee at Makkah. This can be done in normal clothes. (If Sayee was performed on 8th Zill Hajj, then Sayee need not be performed now).

4. On the 11th of Zill Hajj and 12th of Zill Hajj

Pilgrims have to stone all the three Jamarats starting from the small to the middle to the big. Normally, pilgrims depart from Mina before Magrib time for Makkah. Very few pilgrims stay on till the 13th of Zill Hajj wherein they stone the three Jamarats again and depart from Mina. Remember that your journey from Makkah to Mina, from Mina to Arafat, from Arafat to Muzdalifa, from Muzdalifa to Mina and from Mina to Makkah may be very disorganised as the buses have to do two or three trips and many pilgrims do not have the patience to wait for the buses that the Moallim arranges for them. The buses used during these days are not air-conditioned. Some pilgrims prefer to walk from Makkah to Mina which is 6-7 kms. through the covered walk-way. From Mina to Arafat there is no covered walk-way. Mina ends where Muzdalifa begins. A little after Muzdalifa ends, Arafat begins. All are in a straight direction. It has been noticed that from Makkah to Mina pilgrims are moved by and large smoothly by the Moallims. Similarly, movement from Mina to Arafat, even though confused, still delivers. The problem is in the return journey. You must not panic if you are delayed in your movement from Arafat to Muzdalifa. Remember that you are to leave Arafat only after the Magrib Azaan but have to say Magrib prayers combined with Isha only on reaching Muzdalifa, however long it takes. It might take 6-8 hours to cover the very short distance of 5-6 kms. from Arafat to Muzdalifa by the buses. At Muzdalifa, lines at the toilet can extend upto two hours. You have to plan your toilet accordingly. Muzdalifa and Mina are contiguous and hence it may be advisable that pilgrims who are in a good state of health, after the dawn (Fajr) prayers on 10th D.H., walk over to Mina to their camp and then do the rituals without waiting for the buses to transport them. You must give the first benefit of the buses to older pilgrims and women. Please note that Saudi authorities have decided that unused bus coupons will not be refunded.

Getting lost

If you get lost in Mina, Arafat or Muzdalifa do not panic. In Mina and Arafat, the Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi camps are identified by long yellow pillars which can be seen from a distance. These yellow pillars show that these camps are within the South Asian Mossassa of Makkah to which Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pilgrims are allotted. You must always carry your identification cards with you and ask the way for Moassassa Junoob Aasia [South Asian Mossassa] or Maktab Al-Hind [Indian Office] or Baisatal Hajj Hindiya. The idea is that if you get lost you do not panic and you ask the way to your camp by these words. You must always remember the number of your Moallim’s Maktab, for example, if you are allotted to Maktab 53, then both in Mina and Arafat, you must always ask for the way to Maktab 53. It is good to remember the name of the Moallim so that the address is complete, for example, Maktab 53 of Moallim so and so. If this does not work only then you should ask for the South Asian Mossassa or Indian Hajj office. In Arafat, you should not get out of your camp. Otherwise, there is a distinct possibility that you will get lost. [Contact Numbers] In case you are actually lost in Arafat or Muzdalifa or Mina, ask people the way, do not panic. Even if it takes 6-10 hours you will be able to find your way back to your camp. Remember, you must carry sufficient money to take private buses in case you miss your own bus. It is best to have 10 Riyal notes with you for this purpose. If you are actually lost in Arafat and are unable to find your way in 4-5 hours, catch any private vehicle which will take you to Muzdalifa. They may charge 10-20 Riyals depending on the demand. In Muzdalifa, just do your prayers and Ibaadat and then take any private vehicle to Mina or walk to Mina the next day after Fajr. In Mina it is easier to find your camp as the Indian camps are situated on two main roads called the Souq-al-Arab and the Share-Johara and if you remember the road on which your camp is situated and remember your Maktab number, you can easily be directed by any one to this place. The Hanafi school of thought says that in Arafat if you are saying your prayers in the Masjid-e-Nimra you should follow what the Imam does which is that after the Khutbah he first prays Zuhar and then prays Asar in the Qasar form by combining both these at Zuhar time. If you are in your camps (which all of you should be), then the Zuhar prayer is done at Zuhar time and Asar prayer is done at Asar time. They are not combined. The Shafa’i School says that even in camps, Zuhar and Asar should be said together. Follow your school of thought. At Muzdalifa, however, you say your Magrib prayer first and follow up with Isha prayer because you are already well past Magrib time. Combining Magrib and Isha prayers at Muzdalifa is the Sunnah of the Prophet (Pbuh).


Each Jamarat at Mina is to be stoned seven times. On the 10th of Zill Hajj it is only the big Jamarat, however on the next 2-3 days, all the three Jamarats from small to medium to big in that order. If you are picking pebbles at Muzdalifa, be sure to carry a plastic bag with you to keep the pebbles. Pick some extra pebbles just in case you drop some when pelting the Jamarat. For 10th D.H. you need 7 pebbles, for 11th D.H. 21 pebbles, for 12th D.H. 21 pebbles, and (if necessary) for 13th D.H. another 21. Pick an extra 10 pebbles.

While pelting the Jamarat, you pick up one pebble at a time between your forefinger and thumb, and say Bismillah Allah-o-Akbar and throw it inside the receptacle around the pillar. Repeat that each time till you pelt 7 pebbles. Take care not to hurt anyone during pelting. Do not throw anything other than small pebbles. Do not abuse.


If you are unable to do the sacrifice (Hajj Qurbani) yourself, as there is great rush at the slaughter houses, you can buy the coupons of the Islamic Development Bank. There are bank branches and counters at Makkah/Madinah/Mina for this purpose. Do not let confidence tricksters take your money for sacrifice.


Remember that the Tawaaf-e-Ziyarat after Hajj at Makkah is the second most important ritual of Hajj. You will have to arrange your own transport from Mina to Makkah and back for this purpose. However, you may do this in a convenient manner by seeing the crowd in the Haram Sharief and then deciding whether to do the Tawaaf near the Kaabah or do it on the first floor or the terrace. Doing the Tawaaf from the first floor or the terrace means covering a larger distance but may be easier and convenient. After the Tawaaf you have to do the Sayee which you can do even in normal clothes. If you have done the Sayee after a Tawaaf before going to Mina on the 8th of Zill Hajj then you need not do the Sayee again. Remember to consult knowledgeable people or authentic books to find out about the details of Hajj rituals and the manner in which you have to perform them. Menstruating or post-partum women have to postpone the Tawaaf till they can perform ghusl.


Fire Hazards

Fire-proof tents would be housing Indian pilgrims at Mina. However, small fires cannot be ruled out. You have to be very careful during your stay in Mina. See and find out where are the exit points in your camp, where are the fire extinguishers and in case of emergency how you could easily get out of the camp to a safe place. Do this inspection as soon as you reach Mina. You can never be over cautious. You must also teach your fellow pilgrims about emergency evacuation procedure. The idea is to evacuate without creating panic or stampede. Some smart and young people can be given the job of supervising evacuation in case of emergency and also of trying to put out the fire through the fire extinguishers. Read the instructions on the fire extinguishers as soon as you arrive in your camp, so that you are familiar with its use from before.


Every year invariably there is a stampede or stampede condition at the site of stoning of the Jamarat. There are two levels from which you can stone the Jamarat (Ramy) and you must chose a time where you find that the crowd is not too much and that the stoning can be done with ease. Never get stuck in a crowd that is not moving or which you can see is stationary. Choose the ground or the top level for stoning as per the assessment of the crowd. You have to be always very careful about this procedure. Remember that old, infirm, children and women who are not able to withstand the strain can depute someone else to stone on their behalf. If you find that near the stoning site there is too much overcrowding or that movement is very slow, you must immediately turn and go back to your camp. Get out of the crowd immediately. Come back at a better time. You must also be very alert to the fact that some pilgrims of certain nationalities come in batches and push their way through. Do not get into their way or try to stop them. You would get harmed in the process. It is best to avoid their path and wait till they get out. Do not try to go against the direction of the crowd. Move with the crowd. Do not lose your temper and do not fight with others. If required, retrace your steps after the rush has passed. You have to take care of yourself and your group. Find out the best time when you can stone. If you drop something or lose your slippers, do not stoop to pick it up. You may be trampled. After stoning of the small and middle Jamarats (on 11th/12th D.H) you have to go to the side and supplicate, facing the Kaabah, standing up. This should be a very short supplication as there might be rush. Choose a place or corner away from the Jamarat to stand and supplicate. You do not supplicate after stoning the big Jamarat.

On the last day after stoning of the Jamarats, you have the option of walking out of Mina into Makkah and taking a private vehicle to take you to your building. However, you should do this only if you are very confident that you can reach your building. Otherwise, you should ask to be taken to the Haram Sharief. Go inside the Haram Sharief and get your bearings and then walk to your building. Always remember that there is no need to hurry in any situation. Islam does not entail that you suffer bodily harm or risk your life. There are always options available and hence there is no need for you to hurry and in the process get harmed. After the Hajj is over and when you are back in Makkah you must pray and thank Allah and then should immediately go to the nearest telephone booth and ring up you relatives in India and inform them of the successful completion of your Hajj and of your well-being.

You must now prepare for your journey back to India. In case there is an emergency by which you have to postpone your departure or prepone your departure then you may contact the Air India officials available in the Indian Hajj office for the purpose. If you can find some one who can switch place with you on the particular flight that would help matters. Otherwise you should stick of schedule. The average stay of Hajj Committee pilgrims in the Kingdom is around 43 days. As said earlier, people who have done the Madinah movement before Hajj would go from Makkah to the Jeddah Hajj Terminal while those who are doing the Madinah movement post-Hajj would go from Madinah to the Hajj Terminal. Local regulations and Air India requires that pilgrims reach the Hajj Terminal 24 hours prior to the scheduled departure of their aircraft. Thus, remember to have enough money to buy your food and water at the Hajj Terminal for at least 24 hours. Air India supplies food packets if delays are more than 6 hours. Remember you have to look after yourself for the first 24 hours. In case you have to come to Jeddah from Makkah or Madinah to meet your relatives or friends, remember that you cannot travel to Jeddah on the Moallim’s card and are liable to get arrested. Your friends or relatives will have to make appropriate arrangements if they want you to be with them in Jeddah. Your Moallim should also be consulted about such movement. For your relatives and friends who would like to contact you and do not know where you are staying in Makkah, there are two computerised pilgrim reception centres set up by the Consulate at Makkah and they can easily get your details from there. In Madinah, they will have to contact the Consulate office or branch offices since it is not known in advance which building and to which contractor particular pilgrims are to go. In Mina and Arafat you can give them the name of the Moallim and his Maktab number where you can be tracked down.

Before leaving Makkah finally, the pilgrim has to perform the Farewell Tawaaf (Tawaaf al-wida). It is obligatory for every pilgrim except menstruating or post-partum women.

After Hajj, from Makkah or Madinah you will be transported in buses by the Moallim or the contractor (as the case may be) to the Jeddah Hajj Terminal. Please ensure that your luggage is loaded on the same bus in which you are travelling. When you get down at the Jeddah Hajj Terminal please ensure that the luggage is also off loaded and you have all your luggage with you. There will be Consulate officials at the airport to help you to check in at the Air India counter. The Consulate’s job ends and Air India takes over once the Consulate gives the list of pilgrims to the Air India staff. Never stand behind a bus, even if it is stationary or not started. Always ensure you have clear vision of both sides of the road while crossing a road. Never come out from behind a bus on to a road. Do not stand between parked buses. At the airport, there are invariably problems of excess baggage of pilgrims. You must contact Air India staff once you check in and then go in through for departure. Remember that at the Hajj Terminal you will have to sleep on the bare floor and you will have to put up with difficulties. Be prepared for these hardships. In case you have excess baggage you must be ready to pay for the same. Otherwise, you would be delaying other passengers if you haggle at the counter and try to fight with the staff of Air India over your excess baggage. You will realise that to make Hajj easier you have to always pray to Allah. Then you have to help yourself rather than rely on anyone else. You must continue with your exemplary behaviour, repentance, Ibaadat and compassion towards fellow human beings.

The Faraaidh of Hajj

Hajj has Three fundamental Fardh (compulsory) acts, viz.,

(1) Ihraam: Making Niyyat with the heart for Hajj and reciting Talbiyah, i.e.

Labbayk Allahumma labbayk.
Labbayka laa sharika laka labbayk.
Innal hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-mulk.
Laa shareeka lak.

(2) Wuqoof at Arafaat: This wuqoof (stay-over) at Arafaat is on the 9th Zil Hijj at any time from after zawaal until Subh Saadiq (Dawn) of 10th Zil Hijj, even if the Wuqoof is for just a moment.

(3) Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat: This is the Tawaaf which is made at any time from dawn on the 10th Zil Hijj until 12th Zil Hijj after the head is shaved or the hair cut.

If any one of these three Fardh acts is omitted, the Hajj is not valid. Omission of any of these acts cannot be compensated for by means of sacrificing an animal, etc. Should any one of these three Fardh acts be omitted, the Hajj becomes qadhaa, i.e. it will have to be performed again.

The Waajibaat of Hajj

Six acts are Waajib in Hajj.

  1. To stop over at Muzdalifah at the time of Wuqoof, i.e. during the night of the 10th Zil Hijj.

  2. To make Sayee between Safa and Marwah.

  3. Rami of the Jimaar, i.e. to strike the pebbles at the Jamraat.

  4. Qurbaani, (sacrifice) if the Haji is a Qaarin or Mutamatti’.

  5. Halq (shaving the head) or Qasr (cutting the hair).

  6. Tawaaf-e-Widaa (The Farewell Tawaaf) for those living outside the Meeqaat.

If a Waajib act is omitted, the Hajj is still valid, but compensation has to be offered whether the omission is deliberately or by error. Sometimes the, jaza (i.e. the compensation) is Dum (an animal) and sometimes it is Sadqah. However, if a Waajib act is omitted on account of a valid reason, then jaza (compensation) is not obligatory.

The Sunnats of Hajj

  1. Tawaaf-e-Qudoom for the Mufrid Aafaaqee and the Qaarin.

  2. Raml during Tawaaf-e-Qudoom.

  3. The Imaam has to deliver Khutbah at three places:

    1. On the 7th Zil Hijj at Makkah Mukarramah.

    2. On the 9th Zil Hijj at Arafaat in Masjid Namrah before the two Salaats are performed together.

    3. On 11th Zil Hijj at Mina.

  4. To spend the 9th night at Mina.

  5. To proceed from Mina to Arafaat after sunrise on the 9th Zil Hijj.

  6. To depart from Arafaat with the departure of the Imaam.

  7. To spend the night at Muzdalifah after returning from Arafaat.

  8. To take ghusl in Arafaat.

  9. During the days at Mina, to spend the nights also at Mina.

  10. To halt at Muhassab on returning from Mina even if just for a moment.

Besides the above, there are many other Sunnat acts of the Hajj.

Deliberate neglect or omission of any Sunnat is sinful. Rendering the Sunnats is an act of great thawaab. If a Sunnat act is omitted, there is no jaza (compensation) or penalty to be paid. However, care should be taken not to omit the Sunnats since such omission reduces the thawaab of the Hajj.

The Mustahabbaat of Hajj

  1. Men have to recite the Talbiyah audibly.

  2. Reciting the Talbiyah in abundance.

  3. Qurbaani (sacrificing an animal) by the Mufrid.

  4. To take ghusl at the time of entering Makkah Mukarramah.

  5. To stop near to Jabal-e-Rahmat in Arafaat if there is no congestion.

  6. To perform Zuhr and Asr Salaat together in Arafaat with Jamaat.

  7. During the duration of Wuqoof at Arafaat to recite Talbiyah and make dua in abundance.

  8. To halt at Mash’ar-e- Haraam during Fajr (morning) of the Day of Arafaat.

  9. To perform Fajr Salaat at Muzdalifah.

  10. To make Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat on 10th Zil Hijj.

Mustahab is an act which is highly meritorious. Its thawaab is great. However, omission of Mustahab acts is not sinful. But, this does not mean that one should be neglectful in regard to the Mustahabbaat.

The Makruhaat of Hajj

Makruh acts are reprehensible and the thawaab of the Hajj is reduced by the perpetration of Makruh acts. The Hajj becomes defective by the commission of Makruh acts. Deliberate perpetration of Makruh acts is sinful. However, Makruh acts will not invalidate the Hajj. Among the prohibitions, only sexual intercourse which has been committed prior to the Wuqoof of Arafaat.

The following things are Makruh:

  1. The Imaam reciting the Khutbah before zawaal on the Day of Arafaat.

  2. After performing both Salaats together in Masjid Namrah, to remain long outside the limits of Arafaat.

  3. To depart from Arafaat before or after the Imaam.

  4. To make the Rami with pebbles obtained from near to the Jimaar or with pebbles of the Masjid or to break a big stone into bits and use the pieces for pelting.

  5. When terminating the Ihraam of Hajj or Umrah to shave only one quarter of the head or to cut hair from only a quarter of the head.

  6. During the days of Mina, to spend the nights in Makkah.

  7. To make Wuqoof of Muzdalifah in Wadi Muhassar.

Prohibitions of Ihraam

The following acts are prohibited during the state of Ihraam:

  1. Sexual intercourse as well as all sex-play and acts and talks of romance.

  2. Quarrelling and fighting.

  3. Hunting land animals.

  4. To inform a hunter of the whereabouts of an animal.

  5. To aid a hunter in anyway whatever.

  6. To chase a wild animal.

  7. To break an egg of a wild bird.

  8. To injure any wild animal, even removing its feathers.

  9. To sell wild animals.

  10. To purchase wild animals.

  11. To remove the milk of a wild animal.

  12. To cook the meat of eggs of wild animals.

  13. To kill lice.

  14. To throw lice in the heat of the sun.

  15. To wash clothing with the intention of killing lice.

  16. To instruct another person, directly or indirectly, to kill lice.

  17. To dye one’s hair.

  18. To use gum or any kind of hair conditioner.

  19. To apply perfume.

  20. To cut hair and nails or to ask another person to cut one’s hair and nails.

  21. To cover the face or any part of the face.

  22. To wear sewn garments, e.g. kurtah, trousers, topee, etc.

  23. To wear such shoes or socks which conceal the raised bone in the front of the foot.

  24. To wear garments which have been dyed in saffron, kusum or any fragrant substances. However, if the garments so dyed have been thoroughly washed, leaving no fragrance, it will then be permissible to wear such garments.

Makruhaat of Ihraam

The following acts are Makruh during the state of Ihraam:

  1. To comb the hair or beard.

  2. To scratch the hair in such a way that hair or lice falls out.

  3. To make khilaal in the beard.

  4. To sew the two ends of the lower Ihraam garment when this is not occasioned by a need to conceal the aurah.

  5. To tie knots in the upper garment or to tie it with pins, needles, etc.

  6. To smell perfume.

  7. To touch perfume.

  8. To sit in the shop of a perfurne-seller so as to inhale the fragrance of the perfume.

  9. To unnecessarily tie a bandage on the body.

  10. To touch or to smell fragrant fruit and grass.

  11. To stand under the cloth of the Ka’abah in such a way that the cloth touches the head or face.

  12. To lay on one’s stomach with one’s face downwards on the pillow.

  13. To eat uncooked fragrant smelling food.

  14. To look with lust at the satar of one’s wife.

  15. To throw any garment, e.g. coat, over the shoulders.

Errors in Hajj and Kaffaarah

Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:

  1. Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.

  2. Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.

The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:
  1. The prohibitions of Ihraam.

  2. The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).

Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram. Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:

  1. To apply perfume.

  2. For men to wear sewn clothes.

  3. To cover the head and face.

  4. To remove lice from one’s body.

  5. To kill lice.

  6. To remove hair from the body.

  7. To cut nails.

  8. To indulge in sexual relationship.

  9. To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).

  10. To hunt in the Holy Precincts.

  11. To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.

Principles Governing the Errors

There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors.

First Principle: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:

  1. The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.

  2. The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.

  3. The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.

  4. The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.

The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:

  1. If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.

  2. If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.

  3. If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.

  4. If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.

Second Principle:Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.

Thrid Principle: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:

  1. Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.

  2. To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.

Fourth Principle: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.

Fifth Principle: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2.5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.

Sixth Principle : The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.

Seventh Principle : Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:

  1. The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered.

  2. This amount may be given in charity.

  3. One may fast instead.

Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.

Eigth Principle: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.

Ninth Principle: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.

Tenth Principle: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.

Eleventh Principle: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.

Twelveth Principle: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.

Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin.

Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.

Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.

The Rules of Jinaayat

Some explanation and examples regarding the errors occurring during Hajj will now be given for better understanding.


  1. If the whole Sayee or the greater number of its Shauts were omitted without reason or the Sayee was made riding, Without valid reason, the Hajj will be valid, but Dum is Waajib. However, if the Sayee is repeated on foot, the Dum penalty falls away.

  2. If one, two or three Shauts of Sayee were omitted without valid reason or executed while riding for no proper reason, Sadqah is Waajib for every Shaut.

Wuqoof at Arafaat

  1. If one failed to reach Arafaat on the 9th Zil Hijj before sunset, the Hajj is not valid. Qadhaa of the Hajj is now obligatory. The Hajj has to be repeated.

  2. It is essential to remain in Arafaat until sunset. If one leaves Arafaat before sunset, it is incumbent to return there before sunset otherwise Dum becomes Waajib.

Wuqoof at Muzdalifah

  1. It is Waajib to observe the tarteeb (consecutive order) of Maghrib and Isha Salaat. It is also Waajib to perform these two Salaats together at Muzdalifah. If the tarteeb was not observed or if the two Salaats were not performed together, Dum is obligatory.
  2. If the Wuqoof of Muzdalifah is omitted without valid reason, Dum is Waajib. If omitted because of a valid reason, Dum is not Waajib. If women omit this Wuqoof because of the crowds and congestion, Dum is not Waajib, since such omission is on valid grounds in relation to females.


  1. In the following cases of omission, Dum will be Waajib:

    • If the Rami of all four days is omitted.

    • The whole Rami of any one day is omitted.

    • The majority of the pebbles of a day is omitted, e.g. four pebbles on the 10th Zil Hijj were omitted or eleven pebbles of any other day.

  2. In the following cases of omission, the full Sadqah is Waajib for every pebble omitted:
    • On the 10th Zil Hijj, three or less pebbles were omitted.

    • On the other days (11th,12th,13th), ten or less pebbles were omitted.

  3. If the total amount of the Sadqah for all the pebbles omitted is equal to the price of a Dum, then Sadqah slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given.

May Allah accept your Ibaadat and HAJJ
Acknowledgement: Afzal Amanullah, Consul General of India, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)


Female Pilgrims

Avail the Concessions

  • It is desirable for a woman to seek her husband's permission for the prescribed Hajj. Then if he grants her the permission she may leave for Hajj; in case he refuses to give permission, she may still proceed for Hajj, for a husband should not forbid his wife from performing obligatory Hajj. It is an obligatory act of worship. It is unlawful to obey anyone in something that involves disobedience to Allah. A woman should perform obligatory Hajj as soon as possible, just as she should offer her prescribed daily prayers at their earliest prescribed times. In either case a husband has no right to prevent his wife from doing what is her obligatory duty. The same applies when a wife has vowed a Hajj, because it is obligatory like the prescribed Hajj. In the case of supererogatory Hajj, however, the husband may prevent his wife, and the wife must obey her husband. This is supported by a Hadith reported by Daraqutni on the authority of Ibn 'Umar who narrated that while speaking about a wealthy lady whose husband had refused to give her permission to perform Hajj, the Prophet (Pbuh) said: "She must not go for Hajj except by her husband's permission.

  • The Ihraam of a female is similar to that of a male. She too has to abstain from all the prohibitions and makruhaat of the state of Ihraam. However, there are some differences. It is permissible for a woman to wear sewn clothing.

  • It is Waajib for her to keep her head covered.

  • When concealing her face, she should not let the covering cloth touch her face since this is not permissible in Ihraam . The cloth covering her face should be hungover a special protuberance designed specifically for this occasion.

  • It is permissible for women to wear colourful garments provided there is no emission of fragrance from the garments.

  • Women should recite the Talbiyah silently. so that their voices are not heard by men.

  • During Tawaaf women do not make Idhtiba and Ramal nor should they run between Meelain Akhzarain during the Sayee.

  • When there are crowds of people and congestion prevails, women should not touch Hajr-e-Aswad nor kiss it.

  • During the state of haidh (Menses) they should neither make Tawaaf nor Sayee. If they postpone Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat due to haidh and perform it later than 12th Zil Hijj, Dum is not obligatory on them.

  • Remember that old, infirm, children and women who are not able to withstand the strain can depute someone else to stone on their behalf.

  • If women omit the Wuqoof at Muzdalifah because of the crowds and congestion, Dum is not Waajib, since such omission is on valid grounds in relation to females.

  • If Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat is omitted, the Muhrim will remain in the state of Ihraam as long as he does not return and complete Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat. Women will remain haraam for him as long as he does not complete Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat. If he does not complete Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat, he remains in the state of Ihraam in relation to women. Every time he indulges in sexual intercourse, one Dum becomes obligatory. The only way in which he can be set free from the Ihraam is to complete Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat.


Some Useful Tips for Pilgrims

  1. It is always better to familiarize yourself with different Holy sites and places before you proceed for Hajj. Video films on Hajj are a good means to attain this objective.

  2. Hajj Guides should be studied in detail. Look at the Hajj landmarks minutely.

  3. Remember Hajj does not involve much of duas or rituals. It requires more of etiquette because a pilgrim has to spend six days in company of an international assembly of people. Spirit of camaraderie, bon homie and fraternity must be nurtured.

  4. Saudi Arabia has invested heavily in modernizing Hajj facilities. We must use them carefully to get the best results. For instance, there may be taps that need not be turned. You just place your hand below and water will bubble out. These are sensor operated taps. Escalators are common in Haram Sharief and in toilets and bathrooms. Closets in underground Zam-zam well need just to be pressed for water jets to spring out. One can directly drink from them. Phones can be used conveniently with phone cards. Buy and keep a few cards. They avoid hassles for change.

  5. Some Indian pilgrims who use the brick or mud pellets for drying urine, carry them to flight toilets. These will surely choke the toilets and make them unusable for others. Such practices must be avoided. Use tissue paper instead. It is available in plenty on the plane.

  6. Use the places meant for specific purpose for the same purpose. For example,

    • Do not make wuzu at Zamzam closets inside the Masjid e Haram. These closets are for drinking.

    • Do not take bath at underground Zam-zam well. You can however pour water over head and drench your Ihram.

    • Do not wash clothes at toilets in Mina or Arafaat. Washing can be postponed till your return to Makkah.

    • Get your head shaved only at the Barber’s saloons. The unauthorized Pakistani barbers may offer a concessional head shave at SR5 beneath the Jamaraat bridge. Avoid them. Because police whisks them away every now and then. If you engage them it is possible you will be left with with half shaven head.

  7. Do not carry gas or oil stoves to tent cities. They are hazardous. Buy cooked food. At Arafaat muallim and philanthropists distribute food packets. Avoid smoking inside tents.
  8. Buying Qurbani coupons of IDB is the easiest way to discharge your obligation to sacrifice. This meat is hygienically packed and sent to people in distress in different countries. This way you will also be contributing to a cause.

  9. Do not panic in times of emergencies. Mark the exit routes in advance. Fire is the greatest hazard. Take care of the old, infirm people and women. They are more vulnerable in such situation than others.

  10. Memorize every place, location or camp that is assigned to you for stay. Remember them in relation to the shops around, numbers inscribed or colours of signboards. Muzdalifah is usually the place where people get severed from their families or groups. Remember the route you take while going to toilets during the nightly stay at Muzdalifah.

  11. Traffic moves ‘always from right’ in Saudi Arabia. When you are crossing the road, look towards your left for incoming vehicles. Most pilgrims get hurt because they do not care for the local rule.

  12. Carry tablets for common ailments such as diarrhoea, fever, cold, pain etc. Saudi chemists dispense medicine only in packets. Tablets distributed by Indian dispensaries are generally of poor quality.

  13. Do not use tap water supplied in buildings for drinking anywhere on the pilgrimage route. This will cause you stomach problems. Either drink zam zam in the Haram Sharief or buy bottled water from the market. Makkah Municipality has erected zam zam water closets at various street corners for the convenience of pilgrims. Water can be stored from these closets. Often bottled water is distributed free of cost by philanthropists.

  14. Certain rites and rituals may be prescribed with particular schedules, for instance, stoning at Jamaraat may be preferred (afzal) during prescribed hours. But this may lead to over crowding and stampede. Do not insist on afzal schedule but look for convenience. Allah does not want pilgrims to risk their lives or incur injuries.

By Maqbool Ahmed Siraj


Glossary of Arabic Terms

Dum Atonement, compensation
Fardh Compulsory act 
Faraaidh Plural of Fardh 
Ghusl Bath 
Hateem The area between Kaabah and the circular wall on one side of Kaabah
Haidh Menses
Halq Shaving of hair 
Ihram acramental clothes put on for Hajj or Umrah purposes
Janaaza  Funeral
Janamaz Prayer mat
Kaffarah Compensation
Meeqath The area around Haram which is considered a sanctuary with set of dos and don’ts
Mustahab Acts liked by the Prophet
Makrooh Acts disapproved by the Prophet
Nafl Voluntary
Qasr Shortening of hair
Rami Stoning
Raml Running during the Sayee
Satar Hidden parts
Salaat Namaz, Prayer
Sunnat Act recommended by the Prophet (Pbuh)
Sayee Running between hills of Safa & Marwah
 Talbiyah To chant
Tawaaf Going around Kaabah in circular fashion
Wajib Compulsory, but a degree less than Fardh
Wuqoof Stay over
Zabah Sacrifice

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