Islamic Voice
Shawwal/Zul-Qada 1422
January 2002
Volume 15-01 No:181

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Our Dialogue

By Adil Salahi


Tawaf of Farewell
Tamattu Method and Praying at Maqaam Ibraheem
Too Weak to do Sa'ie
A Woman's Companion and Sacrifice
Woman's Ihram
Pilgrimage Under Scheme
Pilgrimage for Deceased Parent
Following a Guide Book During Pilgrimage
Why Non-Muslims Cannot Visit Makkah even During Hajj?
Jihad or Pilgrimage
Wearing Ihraam the Right Way
Accident on the Road to Pilgrimage


Tawaf of Farewell

Q. After doing all the duties of pilgrimage, my wife and I left Makkah in the late morning of the 12th of Dhul-Hajjah. My wife had done her stoning earlier,while I requested someone to do it on my behalf. We went straight to Jeddah without doing the tawaf of farewell. We went first to Jeddah then to Madinah and we stayed for a few days and came back later for our return journey back home. However we decided to go back to Makkah to do the tawaf of farewell which we did on 23rd Dhul Hajjah. How wrong was my performance?

A. I am not particularly happy with people asking others to do the stoning on their behalf only to avoid the rush. After all, the duties of Hajj are individual duties and they should be performed by the individual. In cases where there is legitimate reason for leaving early, one may ask someone to do the stoning on his behalf. Your wife has a good reason for doing so, because for women, to avoid the Edited by Adil Salahi

Rush is perfectly legitimate. I would have preferred that both of you stayed until midday and you yourself did the stoning for both of you. However, dealing with something that has already been done, I would say that it is alright. You should have done your tawaf of farewell before you went to Jeddah. That would have been the proper time for it. However since you went back for it and did it in the month of pilgrimage, you have completed your duty. No compensation is due of you for any of these actions. Imam ibn Hazm who lived in the Andalus, which is in Spain now says that a pilgrim who has omitted the tawaf of farewell should go back to it even if he has travelled to the end of the world. Your action in going back was the appropriate one.

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Tamattu Method and Praying at Maqaam Ibraheem

Q Where should I enter into ihraam if I am coming from India by plane, landing in Jeddah and proceeding to Makkah? When do I do the pilgrimage in the tamattu method-do I do the tawaf of arrival on the 8th of Thul Hajjah before going to Mina? Do I offer the voluntary prayers and witr during my stay in Mina, Arafat and Muzdalifa? Do I need to do the saie twice after tawaf of ifaadah? Should I continue to offer the sacrifice as usual in my home country? Some people suggest that shortening one's hair after the tawaf of arrival is preferable to shaving one's head. Please clarify. If one has ample time, should he shorten his prayers during pilgrimage? Is offering prayer at Maqam Ibraheem a sunnah or a duty?

A. Ihraam should be done at the point of meeqat. For a person who is coming from India, this point is the parallel point to Qarn El Manazil on his route. If you are coming to pilgrimage, normally an announcement is made on the flight that the point of meeqat is reached and those who are intending to do Umrah or pilgrimage should enter into a state of ihraam. When you do the pilgrimage in the tamattu method, you need not do the tawaf of arrival on the 8th of Dhul Hajjah. You have already arrived and you have done the Umrah, the tawaf of which counts as the tawaf of arrival. When you offer prayers in Mina, Muzadalifah and Arafat, you shorten them like the imam does, regardless of whether you are joining the congregational prayer or not. You may offer the Sunnah and you should offer the witr as well. If you are doing the tamattu method, then altogether you do two saies- one for your Umrah which you do on arrival and the other is after the tawaf of ifaadah when you have completed most of the duties of pilgrimage. The two saies are thus separated by several days. You do not do two saies after the tawaf of ifaadah as you have suggested.

If you continue to do the sacrifice in your own home country by asking someone to do it on your behalf, this is highly commendable and may Allah reward you for it. Shortening one’s hair is not done after the tawaf of arrival, not by any pilgrim. It is done at the completion of the duties of Umrah or on the day of Eid, during pilgrimage. These duties can be done in any order as the Prophet has indicated. If you are doing the pilgrimage in the tamattu method, you may wish to shorten your hair after the Umrah you do on arrival and shave your head on the grand day of pilgrimage. You may alternatively shorten your hair on both occasions or have a head shave on both. Offering prayer at Maqma Ibraheem is recommended. This means that it is a sunnah. It is not obligatory. Allah has told us in the Quran that this point is one to be chosen for offering prayers and the Prophet has taught us that it is the preferable place to offer the sunnah of tawaf after we have completed it. However when the area of tawaf is overcrowded, we should not try to pray at Maqam Ibraheem and disturb those who are doing the tawaf. Alternatively we can offer the sunnah of tawaf at any place in the Haram. It is unfortunate that some people feel that they must pray at Maqam Ibraheem and some of them stand in the midst of tawaf to cordon a small area in which one or two people stand to pray. When these have finished, they take their turn in the cordon while the others offer their prayers. This is contrary to what the Prophet has taught us.

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Too Weak to do Sa'ie

Q. My wife and I intend to perform the pilgrimage, but she is very weak and cannot walk for a long distance. We are Allah willing, going to do the pilgrimage in the tamattu method. So we want to perform the Umrah now and travel to Mina directly for pilgrimage. Is this permissible?

A.The tamattu method is the one preferred by the Prophet for all Muslims. It involves doing the Umrah and pilgrimage separately, starting with Umrah which includes ihraam, tawaf, sa’ie and shortening one’s hair or shaving one’s head. One releases oneself from ihraam immediately afterwards and then re-enters ihraam on the 8th of Thul Hajjah for pilgrimage. As such, the rituals of each major duty are done separately. Therefore you have to do saie for Umrah and another for pilgrimage. This however should not cause your wife any great trouble with the facilities available in the Haram. If she cannot do the saie herself, especially after the tawaf of ifadah, when the place is over-crowded, she could use a wheel chair. You could either push the wheel chair yourself in the passage specially provided for the purpose or ask someone to push it for you. You could also use the first floor which is less crowded.

As for tawaf, you could do it on the second floor. The distance there is much longer, but you can again use a wheelchair. The time needed for this tawaf will not be much longer than if you do it at the ground level, because of the overcrowding there. She can start by walking whatever distance she can manage herself and use a wheelchair when she is tired. In her condition, she cannot do the stoning herself. It is better if she asks you to do it on her behalf. When you have finished stoning for each jamrah yourself, you do it again on behalf of your wife. This way, you reduce the physical effort which may be troublesome to your wife. I pray that both of you will be able to do the pilgrimage in comfort. May I just remind you that doing the pilgrimage in the tamattu method requires each of you to sacrifice a sheep in gratitude to Allah.

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A Woman's Companion and Sacrifice

Q I. I performed Haj with my wife and two children. A woman relative of my wife who works in Riyadh, but whose husband is not in Saudi Arabia travelled with us and performed Haj as a member of the group. Is this acceptable? Q 2. Some authors are advocating that money spent in charity is a good alternative to sacrifice in pilgrimage, considering the waste of meat which takes place. Please comment.

A1. According to some schools of thought, it is permissible for a woman to travel to pilgrimage or some other purpose with safe company. If she cannot have her husband or a mahram travelling with her, then finding an alternative such as travelling with a group of women or with a group that includes women and their husbands or mahrams is acceptable. This applies more specifically to a woman who wants to do her first and obligatory pilgrimage. On the basis of this foregoing, it is permissible for this woman to travel with you since you were travelling with your wife who is her relative and with your two children. May Allah reward you for giving her this chance of discharging her duty of pilgrimage.

A2. I am afraid what you have read is neither sound nor acceptable. We cannot change the rulings of Islam without suitable and appropriate evidence to support the course we wish to take in preference to the standard one. A few years back, the problem of wasted sacrificial meat was an acute one. Nevertheless, scholars could not venture to suggest that a particular duty of Islam should be offered in a different way different from that taught to us by the Prophet (pbuh). What they did was to highlight the problem and speak to the authorities about the need to find some solution which ensures that all sacrificial meat is properly utilised. Now such a solution has been found and a good use of the sacrificial meat is ensured. What you can do nowadays is to buy a voucher from anyone of the large number of outlets in Saudi Arabia.

The voucher entitles you to receive a sheep on the day of Eid at the slaughter house. You can arrange for its slaughter and make use of it as you see fit, eating some of its meat and giving the rest to the poor in the Haram area. Alternatively, you may sign the voucher and send it at the same place. By doing so, you are appointing the administrating bank authority as your deputy in arranging the slaughter of the sheep and distributing the meat. You clearly indicate what the sheep is intended for, such as it being compensatory or an error in performing pilgrimage or the sacrifice you should give in gratitude to Allah for enabling you to offer the pilgrimage and the Umrah in the same season. The bank authority supervises the slaughter of the sacrificial animals and makes sure that the poor in the Haram area receive more than their adequate share for a reasonable period of time. The remainder is transported by plane, truck or other methods of transport to poverty areas in the Muslim world, particularly where there are concentrations of refugees or famine-stricken population. In this way, the duties of pilgrimage are carried out the way Allah has indicated and a good use of the sacrificial meat is assured.

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Woman's Ihram

Q. What should women wear or not wear over their outer garments during the period of ihraam, or consecration in pilgrimage?

A woman in ihraam or consecration wears all her normal clothes. She is only required to leave her face and hands uncovered. She may not cover these while she is in ihraam.

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Pilgrimage Under Scheme

Q. A relative of mine works for a company which provides incentives in the form of free holidays. Employees have recently been told that they may choose their place where they want to take their free holiday, including foreign travel. If an employee chooses to avail himself of this offer and do the pilgrimage or the Umrah under this scheme, is that acceptable? Is it acceptable for the obligatory pilgrimage?

A. There is nothing wrong with benefitting by such an incentive to fulfill the duty of pilgrimage or Umrah. The company is obviously offering it for hard work, and if one deserves it, he or she has certainly earned it. If the paid travel and holiday cover all the expenses of the pilgrimage, that does not affect the validity of the pilgrimage. It counts as fulfillment of the obligatory pilgrimage if the person concerned is doing it for the first time. Otherwise, it counts as a Sunnah. Even if a person is paying nothing of his pilgrimage expenses out of his own pocket, the pilgrimage is valid, whether it is the obligatory pilgrimage or a voluntary one. A person may be invited, or someone offers him a gift, or he may win a prize offered in a legitimate way. All that is acceptable.

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Pilgrimage for Deceased Parent

Q 1. Is it permissible for me to perform the pilgrimage on behalf of my father who died 30 years ago? Q 2. Is it right or wrong to use the cloth we used in consecration, or ihraam, as wrappings before burial when one dies?

A.1. It is certainly an act of real dutifulness to offer the pilgrimage on behalf of your deceased father. Since he did not offer the pilgrimage in his own lifetime, that duty would be redeemed, and he would no longer be accountable for its omission. The only condition is that you should have performed the pilgrimage on your own behalf first. The pilgrimage is a duty we owe to God and should be treated as a debt which we settle when we offer it. Thus its repayment on behalf of one’s parents is in the same way as repaying their unpaid debts. Thus when you offer the pilgrimage on behalf of your father, you settle his outstanding debt. If he had offered the pilgrimage himself, your offering it on his behalf counts as a voluntary pilgrimage for which you earn him great reward. Moreover, in either case, you earn rich reward from God for this dutiful action.

A.2. If one retains his ihraam garments in order to be wrapped in them when he dies, this is an innovation, or bid’at, and it is wrong. It is as if one is taking with him a proof that he offered the pilgrimage, as if God does not know who has done this or that particular duty. Besides, being wrapped in such garments does not absolve him of any subsequent sin he may have committed, unless it be a very simple offence which God forgives anyway. Much better than such wrapping is to turn to God in repentance and request Him to forgive us. Having said that, I should add that if being wrapped by the ihraam garments occurs naturally, without any deliberate suggestion that it should be the case, then that is appropriate.

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Following a Guide Book During Pilgrimage

Q. My relatives who came from abroad to perform Haj followed a book written as a guide to pilgrims by a scholar in their home country. In this book, readers are told to put out their left foot first when they leave home, because if they leave with their right foot first, all blessings will depart from the house with them. Is this right? Moreover, when they did their Umrah, as they intended their Haj in the tamattu' method, they offered their sacrifice in Makkah about 12 days before the day of pilgrimage itself. I inquired about this and I was told that it was wrong. They had to sacrifice again or to fast 10 days. They did neither. What is their position?

A. The first point about leaving home with the left foot first is absurd. If one is doing something good, it is always better to start with the right side, but this is merely a recommendation. If one starts with the left side, that is acceptable. If one does not pay attention, one’s duty or action is perfectly correct. There is no truth to what your relatives have been told about all the blessings departing from the house if they put out the wrong foot first. God does not work in that way. If He wants to bless a person or his house,

He showers those blessings on him without reckoning. As for the sacrifice, I realise that if he went to several scholars, he is likely to hear the same answer as he was given, which requires those pilgrims to repeat their sacrifice. However, this is an advice based on the knowledge the person concerned has. Most probably he is not taking a comprehensive view of the issue. According to the Shafie school of thought, a person doing the Haj in the tamattu’ method may offer the sacrifice immediately after completing his Umrah, even though there may remain several weeks to the Haj itself. This view is based on the Qur’anic verse stating the tamattu’ method. It says: “He who takes advantage of performing the Umrah before the pilgrimage shall makewhatever offering he can easily afford.” (2: 196). According to the Shafie school, the fact that he completed the Umrah and released himself from ihraam means that he has taken the advantage, which means, in pilgrimage terminology, tamattu’. Thus the sacrifice becomes due and it may be offered at any time after that. It must be offered in Makkah or Mina, and most of it should be given to the poor of the Haram area. Having said that, I should add that if one delays the sacrifice until the sacrifice day in Mina, then that is following the Prophet’s example. In short, what your relatives did is acceptable, God willing,. they do not have to do anything extra.

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Why Non-Muslims Cannot Visit Makkah even During Hajj?

Q1.Many of my friends who are non-Muslims wonder why they are not allowed to visit Makkah and Madinah during Hajj while Muslims are allowed to visit their holy cities and shrines. Please comment.Q 2. Is it obligatory for a person working in Jeddah to do the tawaf of farewell every time he travels home on his annual leave?

A. 1. To start with, the restriction on entry to Makkah and Madinah is not made by any political or human authority. Thus it cannot be questioned as though it is something that a government or a leader has put it in place. Nor can the argument of equal treatment be given here. Suppose, that the Vatican authorities decide to ban non-Catholic people from visiting their city, will anyone have the right to question them? Having said that, we may add that prohibition gives a clear indication that God wants to keep Makkah a city for worship and security. As such it cannot be transformed into a tourist resort. The same applies to Madinah which has been restricted to non-Muslims by none other than the Prophet himself. When God and His Messenger decree something, the only thing open to us is to obey their decree.

A.2. No, that is not required. The tawaf of farewell is required at the end of the pilgrimage. So, if a resident of Jeddah offers the pilgrimage, he or she should do the tawaf of farewell at the end of their pilgrimage, like all pilgrims who come from outside Makkah. When a person leaves Jeddah to go home, he leaves it without having to visit Makkah. If he fears that he may not come back and wishes to make his final day in Jeddah one of worship, and he goes to Makkah for tawaf or Umrah, that is a highly rewarding action, but it is a matter of his own choice.

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Jihad or Pilgrimage

Q. Scholars in our area differ as to which is more important: jihad against the forces occupying our land and enforcing secular laws, or pilgrimage. Please advise.

A. Pilgrimage is a duty on those who are able to undertake the journey. Ability includes being safe and leaving one’s family in safety. In a situation where the Muslim community is not safe because of the oppression of an occupying force, no Muslim may leave his family without protection. Moreover, the safety of the whole community is at issue here. Hence, all resources should be put into the effort to liberate the Muslim community. Having said that, I may add that such efforts need not necessarily mean fighting. Perhaps the community suffering such oppression needs to make its case known all over the world and pilgrimage provides a means of publicity, either through individual efforts or through a formal delegation undertaking the publicity efforts aiming at mobilising international support. Thus, those who travel abroad for this purpose, whether to pilgrimage or to other places, share in the jihad of their community. If we put the question for a strict ruling of which of the two modes is preferable, we are liable to have an erroneous answer.

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Wearing Ihraam the Right Way

Q. What is the correct way of wearing ihram garments during tawaf prayer?

A. A man who is in the state of consecration, or ihraam, must wear two garments which are untailored. He wraps one round his body from the waist down to well below his knees. The other he throws over his shoulders and brings it forward to cover the upper part of his body. People normally leave their right shoulders uncovered, but this is a mistake. Uncovering the right shoulder is recommended only during the first three rounds of the first tawaf, which is performed on arrival. In all other times, it is better to cover both shoulders.

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Accident on the Road to Pilgrimage

Q. Two years ago, I intended to offer the pilgrimage on behalf of my deceased mother, having offered my own pilgrimage earlier. We started with several cars from Dammam, and I declared my intention to do the pilgrimage as I left home. When we were half way on our journey, our car was involved in a serious accident that left one passenger dead and all others injured. I was transferred to a hospital in Alkhobar where I stayed for 10 days. Needless to say, I missed the pilgrimage then. I did not manage it this year either. What is my position?

A. Obviously, the accident took place a long way before reaching the meeqat and you were yet in consecration or ihram. Hence, nothing is required. It is like anyone who intends to go for pilgrimage but before he starts, he is prevented from fulfilling his intention. He has not started the pilgrimage. Therefore, nothing is needed. What worries me in the question, is that you say, you declared your intention for pilgrimage before leaving from home, so does this mean that you actually entered into consecration, or ihram, before leaving home? In order to make this clear I ask you if you had a male companion who put on his ihraam garments at the time and declared: “I intend to do the pilgrimage, my Lord, so facilitate it for me and accept it from me.” If the answer is yes, then you have already started your pilgrimage and in this case you would have to slaughter a sheep and have it sent to the Haram area where it should be distributed to the poor there. But if you had not entered into ihraam or consecration at the point of meeqat, then nothing is required.

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