Terms Related with Forms of Government

طرزِ حکومت سے متعلق اصطلاحات

Autocracy: This is a government by an individual with unrestricted authority. (خود مختارانہ حکومت).

Authoritarian: An authoritarian regime is one that is characterized by or favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom. (مطلق العنانیت)

Candidate: A candidate is a person seeking or nominated for election to a position of authority such as president, prime minister, member of parliament etc. (اُمیدوار)

Constitution: A constitution is a system of fundamental laws and principles that prescribes the nature, functions, and limits of a government. (دستور، آئین)

Constitutional Monarchy: This is a monarchy in which the powers of the ruler are restricted to those granted under the Constitution and laws of the nation. (آئینی بادشاہت مثلاً برطانیہ، جاپان وغیرہ)

Democracy : The form of government run according to the aspirations of the people by their elected representatives. (جمہوریت)

Dictatorship :A form of government in which all authority rests with a single leader or coterie of leader with no scope for pluralism. (آمرانہ حکومت)

First-past-the-post system: An election system in which the candidate who gets the maximum number of votes declared elected, regardless of him or her polling majority of votes or not e.g., If a candidate gets 17,000 of valid votes out of 50,000 votes cast while other three candidates polled 15,000, 10,000 and 7,000, the first is declared elected. This mostly happens in multi-party systems like Britain, India, Pakistan etc. (انتخابی عمل جس میں سب سے زائد ووٹ حاصل کرنے والا منتخب قرار پاتا ہے)

Plebiscite :The direct vote of all the members of an electorate on an important public question such as a change in the constitution.(استصوابِ رائے)

Political Party: A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions. (سیاسی جماعت جو مخصوص نظریات کو پالیسیوں میں ڈھالتی ہے).

Referendum : It is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with Plebiscite. (کسی تجویز پر ووٹروں کی رائے طلب کرنے کا عمل).

Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.(اِقتدارِ اعلیٰ)

State:It is an organized political community, living under a government. (ریاست)

Theocracy : It is a form of government in which a state is understood as governed by immediate divine guidance provided to ruling clergy or other ruling officials. (حکومتِ الٰہیہ)

Totalitarian: A system of government that is centralized and dictatorial and requires complete subservience to the state. (کلّیت پسندانہ طرزِ حکومت)

Westminster Style: The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace ofWestminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The system is a series of procedures for operating a legislature. (برطانوی حکومت کے طرز پر قائم سیاسی نظم).

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