Maintaining Harmony during Hajj
Hajj requires more of an etiquette because a pilgrim has to spend six days in the company of an international assembly of people. Spirit of camaraderie and fraternity must be nurtured.
It is out of the mercy of Allah that we are able to live long enough to witness the succession of the days and months, which bring the various seasons of mercy. Through such seasons, we can gain abundance of rewards. The Hajj season is one such blessed occasion. There are two types of people who witness this season: those who have not made the intention to perform the pilgrimage and those who have.
It is incumbent upon every Muslim who is capable of performing Hajj to make the intention to go. It is therefore wise to fulfill the duty of performing Hajj at the first available opportunity. This is why the Prophet (Pbuh) advised: ‘Hasten to [perform] Hajj for one of you does not know what impediment might come in his way.’
It is indeed, a serious neglect of our duty if we keep postponing the performance of Hajj.
Ihram at Meeqat
(i) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah (Declaration of Intention) and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj and Umrah combined (Qiran) or
ii) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Umrah only (Tamattu) or
iii) Two Rakat Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj only (Ifraad).
Tawaf Qudoom in Makkah (Arrival Tawaf).
Two Rakats Nafil /Drink Zamzam.
Sai’e (running between Safa and Marwah
For Qiran maintain Ihram until Hajj.
For Tamathu one can come out of Ihram.
8th Dhul Hijjah
Ihram from Makkah
For those residing in Makkah, Ihram is from place of residence.
Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah for Hajj and Talbiyah.
Arrival in Mina before Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers and Fajr Prayer of 9th Dhul Hijjah.
9th Dhul Hijjah
After Fajr prayer, arrival at Arafat.
Zuhr, Asr shortened and combined in Nimra Mosque or wherever the tents have been put up in the camps.
Standing at Arafat, after sunset, departure to Muzdalifah without performing Maghrib prayer at Arafat.
Arrival at Muzdalifah, delayed Maghrib and Isha prayers with one Azan and two Iqamats combined. (Isha shortened).
Collect pebbles for Rami of Jamra. Pebbles may also be collected in Mina.
10th Dhul Hijjah
Arrival at Mina after performing Fajr prayer in Muzdalifah.
Lapidation or Rami (casting stone) at Jamra Aqaba (Big Satan) before sun is past meridian.
Sacrifice animal. One lamb or sheep per person. Camel and cow can be shared by 7 persons.
Haircut or tonsuring of head.
Come out of Ihram.
Tawaf Ifadah / Ziarah
11th Dhul Hijjah
Lapidation (casting stones) at all the Three Jamarat after the sun is past meridian (seven pebbles at each jamra)
Stay in Mina
12th Dhul Hijjah
Lapidation (casting stones) to be repeated as the previous day
Leave Mina before sunset, perform Tawaf Ifadah if not performed yet.
13th Dhul Hijjah
If sun sets in Mina, stay there and do lapidation as on the previous two days after the sun is past meridian, leave Mina for home.
Tawaf Wida (Farewell Tawaf) when leaving Makkah for Madinah or home country.
Pilgrims are also recommended to repeat the traditional phrase declaring that they are responding to Allah’s call for them to offer the pilgrimage and complete it. They repeat these phrases as they go into Ihram. Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaik Laa Shareeka Laka Labbaik Innal Hamda Wannimata laka walmulk Laa Shareeka Lak ”
“I respond to Your call my Lord, I respond to You, there is no deity save You. All praise, grace and dominion belong to You. You have no partners.”
Men should utter this aloud while women should say it silently. Repeat this Talbiyyah frequently, and engage in the praise of Allah, in supplication for forgiveness, and in the enjoining of what is good and the forbidding of what is evil.
Essentials of Pilgrimage
There are four essentials of pilgrimage which must be done for it to be valid. Omitting anyone of these will invalidate one’s pilgrimage. These are:
2. Attendance at Arafat at the specified time
3. The Tawaf of ifaadah and
4. Sa’ie between Safah and Marwah
5. A fifth essential is added by Shafie school of thought, which is to shave one’s head (for men only) or to shorten one’s hair.
Restrictions of Ihram
In the state of Ihram, the following acts are forbidden.
1) To cut or shave the hairs of head or body, till the sacrifice of animals is completed.
2) To cut the nails.
3) To wear stitched clothes (for men only).
4) To wear turban or cap or anything which covers the heads (for men only).
5) To wear shoes or socks above the ankle.
6) To cover the face
7) To hunt animals.
10) To fight or quarrel.
11) To have sex
Women in Hajj
Ihram for Women
(i) It is obligatory for women to cover the head.
(ii) Stitched cloth is allowed.
(iii) Any colour dress is allowed.
Bukhari and Ahmad have reported that the Prophet (Pbuh) said: “A pilgrim woman must neither cover her face nor wear gloves.” This proves that a woman in the state of Ihram should not cover her face and hands.
On Menstrual Days
It is reported by Hazrat Aishah that once on a Hajj Pilgrimage when she experienced the monthly period, the holy Prophet (Pbuh) noticing her inconvenience said: “There is no need to cry. This is something that Allah has made as a natural occurrence for daughters of Adam (Pbuh), meaning all women.” Most scholars are of the opinion that purification is not necessary for performing Sa’i between Safa and Marwah, in the light of what the holy Prophet said to Aishah once when she menstruated. He told her. “You may perform all rites (of Hajj) as other pilgrims do, except performing tawaf around the Ka’bah which you may do after you are clean and no longer menstruating.” ‘Aishah and Umme Salamah said: “A woman who performs the tawaf, offers two rak’ah prayer (by the Station of Ibrahim), and then finds that her period has started, may perform Sa’i between Safa and Marwah.” It is preferable, however, to be in a state of complete purity while performing various rites of Hajj or ‘Umrah, because cleanliness is commendable in Islam.
* It is permissible for woman to enter the state of Ihram in case she has experienced menstrual period or child birth by performing the ghusl (obligatory bath) and making the niyat (intention) of Hajj or Umrah. She will have to recite Talbiyah. This is enough for her to enter the state of Ihram.
* She may not offer the two rak’ats nafil salat of Ihram until she is fully clean and performed the obligatory ghusl.
* After Ihram, she may perform the duties of Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina.
* She may not perform tawaf in this state after reaching Makkah.
* She may pray and recite Istaghfar and all other duas.
* If a woman fears that she may begin to menstruate she may perform the Tawaf Al-Ifadah early on the day of Nahr – 10th of Dhul-HIjjah as a precaution against the menses.
* If a woman (pilgrim) is afraid of her monthly period, she may perform the Tawaf of Ka’bah before throwing the pebbles at Jamarah and even before her sacrificial animal is slaughtered.
* Women may touch and kiss the Black Stone when there is an opportunity and no men are around. It is reported that ‘Aishah said to a woman, “Do not crowd with others at the Black Stone, but if you find a chance, touch and kiss it, otherwise if there is crowding, then say a takbir (Allah is the Greatest) when you are opposite to it, and make your tawaf and do not cause any harm to anyone.”
* Staying at Arafah means physical and mental presence in any part of Arafah, whether one is awake, asleep, riding, sitting, lying down, walking, and regardless of whether one is in a state of purity or not, e.g., a menstruating woman.
* Persons who for valid reasons, illness, etc., cannot themselves throw the pebbles may ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf. Jabir said, “We performed Hajj with the Prophet (pbuh) and we had some women and children with us. We (adults) uttered talbiyah and threw pebbles on behalf of the children.” This was reported by Ibn Majah.
* Abu Daw’ud and others reported from Ibn’ Abbas that the Prophet said, “Women pilgrims do not have to shave (their heads); they may only shorten their hair.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “when a woman wants to cut off her hair, she may hold her hair at the front and cut it off about the length of the tip of a finger.”
Prohibited acts while in the state of Ihram
The following acts are prohibited during the state of Ihram:
Sexual intercourse as well as all sex-play and acts and talks of romance.
Quarrelling and fighting.
Hunting land animals.
To inform a hunter of the whereabouts of an animal.
To aid a hunter in anyway whatever.
To chase a wild animal.
To break an egg of a wild bird.
To injure any wild animal, even removing its feathers.
To sell wild animals.
To purchase wild animals.
To remove the milk of a wild animal.
To cook the meat or eggs of wild animals.