Why would unemployment come down when vacancies keep rising?
The unemployment rate had risen to 6.23% in March 2018 from 3.39% in July 2014. The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) Government had promised 20 million jobs every year. It is useful to be reminded that 17 million youth are entering the workforce every year.
Latest data from the Government reveals that only 27.5 lakh jobs were created during the four and half years of government led by Mr. Narendra Modi. These were mainly under flagship schemes namely Prime Minister’s Employment Generation Programme (PMEGP) and Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana and Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Urban Livelihood Mission.
The latest data on unemployment was leaked out from the National Statistical Commission following which some top officials resigned from the Commission. But data emerging from other sources is also damning. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) says India lost an estimated 11 million jobs in 2018. The All India Manufacturer’s Organisation (AIMO) announced in December 2018 that the sector alone lost 3.5 million jobs since 2016 due to demonetization and GST. It is further reinforced by the All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) that one-fifth of India’s 63 million small businesses employing 111 million people faced a 20% fall in profits, leading to massive layoff of workers. Urban women are most affected by the job losses. Data reveals that unemployment among urban women had risen to 27.2% in 2017-18 against 13.1% in 2011-12.
Rubbing salt into the wounds, the news has come that the national telecom network, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), will be cutting down 54,000 jobs in order to remain profitable.
Vacancies Remain High: While the Government has been pushing the private sector to create jobs, it itself had been sitting over four lakh vacant posts as of March 2016 in various government departments. The figures were revealed in the LokSabha on February 7. That’s 11% of the around 3.6 million workforce of the various central government departments.
A cursory look at the Government employment scenario reveals a dismal picture. The Union and State Governments have not filled the vacancies for several years. Here is a lowdown from several departments:
Vacancies in Police and Paramilitary forces Law & order is a state subject and Police Departments are maintained by the states. There are 5.4 lakh vacancies in Police Departments and the paramilitary forces like Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) etc require 61,000 personnel.
State-wise situation of vacancies in Police force:
• Uttar Pradesh: 56,808
• Karnataka: 31,694
• Rajasthan: 13,227
• Maharashtra: 3,000
• Kerala: 1,300
• Delhi Traffic Police: 439
• CRPF: 18,640
• Border Security Force: 10,738
• Sashastra Seema Bal: 18,948
• CISF: 3,812
• No. of labs nationwide: 38
• Vacancies as percentage of sanctioned strength: 46%
Courts are plagued with delay in delivery of justice. Have a look on nation’s courts, where a total of 5,950 vacancies exist in subordinate courts. This must be viewed in the background of court delays as 43 lakh cases are pending in the High Courts itself and 80 judges are retiring every year:
• Sanctioned posts: 1.079
• Vacancies in 2019: 427
• Vacancies in 2018: 387
• Vacancies in 2016: 464
• Vacancies in 2015: 346
• Vacancies in 2014: 246
Government Hospitals across the country have 1.5 lakh vacancies. Odisha tops the list among the States with 3,800 vacancies. AIIMS,with its headquarters in Delhi and centresat Bhubaneswar, Jodhpur, Patna, Raipur, Rishikesh, and Bhopal, has 22,000 vacant posts.
• Vacancies: 62,000
• Army: 7,298 officers
• Navy: 1,606 officers
• Air Force: 192 officers
• Indian Administrative Service (IAS): 1,449
• Indian Police Service (IPS): 970
• Directors and Deputy Secretaries: 400
Vacancies in States:
• Uttar Pradesh: 110 IAS officers
• Bihar: 107
• Tamil Nadu: 94
• Jammu and Kashmir: 53
• Total vacancies in Government Schools number 10 lakh.
• Universities across the States: 700 vacancies
• (Himachal Pradesh University has 131 teaching post vacancies and 50 non-teaching post vacancies. Delhi University has 810 vacancies against 1,706 posts.)
• Vacancies in 8 major IITs: 36% of sanctioned posts
• (IIT-Varanasi functions with only 48% of posts having teachers.) g