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Terms Related With Dams and Hydraulics (آبی سربراہی نظام سے متعلق الفاظ)

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Water is the greatest Divine gift to the humanity and to the planet Earth. The life on this planet owes itself to presence of water. Water is among three things freely available to human beings, the other two being air and sunshine. All three are critically important to sustaining life. While air and sunshine continue to be freely accessible, water is not accessible freely to all. It reaches us via a network of pipes, storages, cleaning systems and is transported to overhead tanks through pumps and channels etc. In this glossary we focus on a variety of terms that are involved in human management of water.

Dam: A dam is a barrier designed and constructed to contain the flow of water. It is often built across the rivers when they pass between two hills. The dams have several purposes e.g., to check floods, to collect water for irrigation, water supply and for generating electricity. (بند)

Sluice: A sluice is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate. (جلدوار یا پانی کا پھاٹک)

Reservoir: A natural or artificial place where water is collected and stored for use, for supplying a community, irrigation etc. (آبی ذخیرہ)

Desalination: Removal of salt (sodium chloride) and other minerals from the sea water to make it suitable for human beings or for industrial use. (تبخیری عمل سے نمکین پانی کو میٹھا کرنا)

Fountain: An ornamental structure in a pool or lake from which one or more jets of water are pumped into the air. (فوّارہ)

Reverse Osmosis: The most common desalination methods in which salt water is forced through a membrane that allows water molecules to pass but blocks the molecules of salt and other minerals.( عملِ نَفُوذ)

Anicut: A dam, found in streams in India which serves to control the flow of the water for irrigation. (پانی کے درّے پر بنایا جانے والا بند یا ڈیم)

Waterworks: The system of reservoirs, channels, mains, and pumping and purifying equipment by which a water supply is obtained and distributed to a city. (شہری پانی کی تقسیم کا نظام)

Overhead Tank: A tank raised over pillars where water is pumped before it is distributed to a locality. (ٹنکی)

Sump: A depression or tank in the ground at the bottom of a shaft where water collects before it is pumped away. (زیر زمیں آبی ذخیرہ)

Cusec: It is also called “Cfs”. It is the rate of the flow. One cfs is equal to a volume of water one foot deep and one foot wide flowing a distance of one foot in one second. One cfs is equal to approximately 450 gallons per minute (gpm). (بہتے پانی کو ناپنے کی اکائی)

Siphon: A tube that carries a liquid from a higher level up and over a barrier and then down to a lower level, with the flow maintained by gravity and suction pressure as long as the tube remains filled. (سائفن یا ایک خمدار نلکی جِس کے ذریعے کوئی سیال شے کِسی اُونچی برتن کے کِنارے کے اُوپر سے گُزار کر گراتے ہیں)

Water recycling: Since water is a precious liquid, the wastewater or sewage is now treated to remove solids and impurities, and used in irrigation, to recharge groundwater aquifers, to meet commercial and industrial water needs, and for drinking. (گندے پانی کو صاف کرکے سینچائی کے لائق بنانے کا طریقہ)

Hardness: A measure of the amount of dissolved calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in water. Hardness is often reported as ppm or milligrams per liter (mg/l) of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3).( پانی میں تحلیل کیلشیم اورمیگنیشیم کی مقدار کے سبب ہونے والی پانی کی سختی کا اندازہ)

Potable water: Water that is of adequate quality to be used for human consumption. (پینے کے قابل پانی)

pH: A numerical measure of acidity or alkalinity. (پانی کی تیزابیت یا شورائیت ناپنے کی اکائی).

Total dissolved solids (TDS): A measure of the concentration of dissolved inorganic chemicals in water. (پانی میں گھلے مادّے)

Acre-foot: The volume of water required to cover an area of one acre of land with 12 inches (1 foot) of water depth. One acre-foot equals 325,851 gallons of water. (ایک ایکڑ زمین پر جمع ایک فٹ گہرے پانی کا حجم)

Waterwheels: These are machines that convert the energy of flowing or falling water into power that can be used to do other tasks or large wheels made of wood or metal that have many blades or buckets along the outside edge to capture the power of moving water. (جل پہیہ)