Acid rain: Rain which takes nitrogen and sulphur from the atmosphere and gets acidic.
Acre-foot: The volume of water required to cover an area of one acre of land with 12 inches of water depth. This is equal to 12,33,346 litres of water.
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Aquifer: A geologic formation that holds and yields useable amounts of water.
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Brook: A natural stream of water, smaller than a river or creek.
Cubic feet per second (cfs): A rate of the flow. One cfs is equal to a volume of water one foot deep and one foot wide flowing a distance of one foot in one second. One cfs is equal to approximately 1,703 litres per minute.
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Distillation: The separation of different substances in a solution by boiling the water and then cooling off the vapour which results in pure water. Impurities remain in the concentrated residue.
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Drainage: The natural movement of surface water over a land area to a river, lake or ocean.
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Effluent: Wastewater discharged from factories or animal farms.
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Evaporation: The process by which water is transformed to the gaseous state. (ØªØ¨Ø®ÛØ±Û Ø¹Ù
Floodplain: The land area adjacent to a river that can be covered by water when a river or stream overflows its banks.
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Groundwater: Water present under the ground.
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Hardness (water): Calcium and magnesium dissolved in water. Such water leaves deposits in pipes. Hardness is often reported as ppm or milligrams per liter (mg/l) of calcium carbonate.
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Irrigation: The controlled application of water to crops.
Lake: A considerable body of inland water or an expanded part of a river. (Ø¬Ú¾ÛÙ)
Percolation: The movement of water through saturated soil layers, often continuing downward to groundwater.
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pH: A numerical measure of acidity or alkalinity. The pH scale ranges from 1 (acidic) to 14 (alkaline). A pH of 7 is neutral.
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Pollution: Contamination of water due to human activity.
Potable water: Water fit for human consumption.
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Precipitation: Rain or snow falling to the ground.
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Reservoir: Water behind a dam is called a reservoir.
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Reverse osmosis (RO): A water treatment process used to remove dissolved inorganic chemicals and suspended particulate matter by passing it through a semi-permeable membrane.
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River basin: The area drained by a river and its tributaries.
Runoff: Rainwater that does not infiltrate the soil but runs off to a river or sea.
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Transpiration: The process of evaporation of water from plants through leaves.
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Turbidity: Water with high density of pollutants.
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