The Three Dimensions of Islam and Their Impact on Psychological Well-Being

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Islam is founded on three dimensions: Islam (submission), Iman (faith), and Ihsan (spiritual perfection). These dimensions correspond to the law, theology, and spirituality within the religion, as outlined by Spevack (2012).

The Dimensions of Islam

1. Islam (Submission): This dimension encompasses the Five Pillars of Islam, which are the fundamental practices and rituals of the religion. These include:
• Belief in and worship of Allah and His Messenger Muhammad.
• Praying five times a day.
• Fasting during Ramadan.
• Giving more than two percent of one’s wealth to those in need.
• Performing the pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in a lifetime.
These practices aim to control and discipline the physical body.

2. Iman (Faith): Iman pertains to the belief system and controls the mind. It includes six primary beliefs:
• Faith in the one and only God, Allah.
• Belief in His messengers and prophets.
• Belief in divine books.
• Belief in angels.
• Belief in the Day of Judgment.
• Belief in destiny.
This dimension shapes the mindset and worldview of a true Islamic believer.

3. Ihsan (Spiritual Perfection): Ihsan is the essence of Islamic spirituality, encouraging believers to worship Allah as though they see Him, or at least with the awareness that Allah sees them. Achieving Ihsan involves:
• Purifying the soul of negative traits like lying, envy, pride, and arrogance.
• Adorning the soul with virtues such as patience, reliance on Allah, sincerity, and love for Allah.

This dimension focuses on spiritual growth and controlling the soul.

The Impact of Ihsan on Psychological Well-Being
Islamic spirituality, or Ihsan, plays a crucial role in achieving both internal and external peace. Internally, it harmonizes the body, mind, and soul. Externally, it promotes mutual help and understanding within the community. Belief in the eternal soul and life after death further reinforces this peace, helping believers endure life’s hardships with a sense of purpose and gratitude.

Studies, including those by Abolfathi Momtaz et al. (2012), indicate that higher levels of spirituality correlate with greater psychological well-being. Components of psychological well-being such as self-acceptance, personal growth, purpose in life, positive relations, environmental mastery, and autonomy are positively influenced by Islamic spirituality. For instance, believers’ faith in destiny and Allah’s will helps them accept themselves and their circumstances, find purpose in worship, and achieve personal growth through adherence to Islamic principles.