Climate Change: The Earth’s climate has changed throughout history. Just in the last 650,000 years there have been seven cycles of glacial advance and retreat, with the abrupt end of the last ice age about 7,000 years ago marking the beginning of the modern climate era “ and of human civilization. Most of these climate changes are attributed to very small variations in Earth’s orbit that change the amount of solar energy our planet receives.
(Ø²Ù ÛÙ Ú©Û Ø¢Ø¨ Ù ÛÙØ§ Ù ÛÚº ØªØ¨Ø¯ÛÙÛ)
Global Warming is the increase of Earth’s average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth. This is a type of greenhouse effect.
(Ú©Ø±Û Ø§Ø±Ø¶ Ú©Û ØØ±Ø§Ø±Øª Ù ÛÚº Ø§Ø¶Ø§ÙÛ Ø¬Ù Ø¬ÙÚ¯ÙØ§Øª Ú©Û Ú©Ù¹Ø§Ø¦Û Ø³Û Ø§ÙØ± Ú©ÙØ¦ÙÛØ Ù¾Ù¹Ø±ÙÙØ ÚÛØ²Ù ÛØ§ ÙÚ©ÚÛ Ú©Û Ø¬ÙØ§ÙÛ Ø³Û ÙØ§ÙØ¹ ÛÙ Ø±ÛØ§ ÛÛ)
Green House Gases: Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases or GHG. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide,methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Human activities since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution (taken as the year 1750) have produced a 40% increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, from 280 ppm in 1750 to 400 ppm in 2015.
(ÙÛ Ú¯ÛØ³ÛÚº Ø¬Ù Ø²Ù ÛÙ Ø³Û Ø§ÙÙ¹Ú¾ÙÛ ÙØ§ÙÛ Ú¯Ø±Ù Û Ú©Ù ÙÛØ¯ Ú©Ø±Ú©Û Ú©Ø±Û Ø§Ø±Ø¶ Ú©Û ØØ±Ø§Ø±Øª Ù ÛÚº Ø§Ø¶Ø§ÙÛ Ú©Ø±ØªÛ ÛÛÚº)
El-Nino: The term El NiÃ±o was originally used by fishermen along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru to refer to a warm ocean current that typically appears around Christmas time and lasts for several months. Fish are less abundant during these warm intervals, so fishermen often take a break to repair their equipment and spend time with their families. In some years, however, the water is especially warm and the break in the fishing season persists into May or even June.
(Ú¯Ø±Ù Ø³Ù ÙØ¯Ø±Û Ù¾Ø§ÙÛ Ú©Û ÙÛØ±ÛÚº Ø¬Ù Ù ÚÚ¾ÙÛÙÚº Ú©Û ØªØ¹Ø¯Ø§Ø¯ Ú©Ù Ú©Ø± Ø¯ÛØªÛ ÛÛÚº)
Arctic shrinkage: The marked decrease in Arctic sea ice and the observed melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet in recent years.
(Ø¨ØØ±Ù Ø§Ø±Ú©ØªÚ© Ú©Û Ø³Ù ÙØ¯Ø± Ú©Û Ø¨Ø±Ù Ú©Ø§ Ù¾Ú¯Ú¾ÙÙØ§)
Climate refugees: People displaced by climate change induced environmental disasters.
(Ø¢Ø¨ Ù ÛÙØ§ Ù ÛÚº ØªØ¨Ø¯ÛÙÛ Ú©Û ÙØ¬Û Ø³Û Ø²Ù ÛÙ Ø³Û Ø¨Û Ø¯Ø®Ù ÙÙÚ¯)
Desertification: The degradation of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas, resulting primarily from natural activities and influenced by climatic variations.
(Ø²Ø±Ø®ÛØ² Ø²Ù ÛÙ Ú©Ø§ Ø±ÛÚ¯Ø²Ø§Ø±ÙÚº Ù ÛÚº ØªØ¨Ø¯ÛÙ ÛÙÙØ§)
Requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment.
(Ú¯ÛØ³ÙÚº Ú©Û Ø§Ø®Ø±Ø§Ø¬ Ø³Û Ù ØªØ¹ÙÙ Ù Ø¹ÛØ§Ø±Ø§Øª).
Carbon footprint: The total set of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event or product. (Ú©Ø§Ø±Ø¨Ù ÙÙ¹ Ù¾Ø±ÙÙ¹)
Ecotax: Fiscal policy that introduces taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives.
(ÙÛ Ù¹ÛÚ©Ø³ Ø¬Ù ÙØ¯Ø±ØªÛ Ø°Ø±Ø§Ø¦Ø¹ ØªÙØ§ÙØ§Ø¦Û Ù¾Ø± ÙÚ¯Ø§ÛØ§ Ø¬Ø§Ø¦Û)
Urban heat island: A metropolitan area which is significantly warmer than its surroundings.
(Ø´ÛØ±Û Ø¹ÙØ§ÙÛ Ø¬Ù Ø²ÛØ§Ø¯Û Ú¯Ø±Ù ÛÙØªÛ ÛÛÚº)
Fossil fuel: Fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust.
(Ø§ÛØ³Û ØªÙ Ø§Ù ØªÙØ§ÙØ§Ø¦Û Ú©Û Ø°Ø±Ø§Ø¦Ø¹ Ø¬Ù Ø²Ù ÛÙ Ø³Û ØØ§ØµÙ ÛÙØªÛ ÛÛÚº Ø¬ÛØ³Û Ù¾Ù¹Ø±ÙÙØ ÚÛØ²ÙØÚ©ÛØ±ÙØ³ÛÙØ ÙØ¯Ø±ØªÛ Ú¯ÛØ³Ø ÙÚ©ÚÛØ Ú©ÙØ¦ÙÛ)
Methane: A greenhouse gas released by enteric fermentation in livestock, rice production, and fossil fuel extraction.
(ÙÛ Ú¯ÛØ³ Ø¬Ù Ø¯Ú¾Ø§Ù Ú©Û Ù¾ÛØ¯Ø§ÙØ§Ø±ØÚ¯ÙØ¨Ø±Ø Ú©ÚØ±Û Ø³Û Ù¾ÛØ¯Ø§ ÛÙØªÛ ÛÛ)