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AISHE Survey – State of Higher Education in India

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General Enrolment Ratio is now 24.6%; Over 24,000 being awarded Ph.Ds annually now; 34.6 million students now enrolled in higher educational institutions; Enrolment of Muslims reaching 4.7% among the total.

India has made great strides in higher education in the last one decade. The stated purpose of higher education is economic growth. Any course in education, skill or training attained after 12 years of schooling is included in ‘Higher Education’. The University of Human Resource Development has recently released the All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE) which provides the facts and figures about the state of education in colleges and universities. The survey was completed in 2016 and covers the progress between 2011 and 2016. We provide the highlights of the survey.
There are 799 Universities in the country, 39,071 colleges and 11,923 stand alone Institutions listed on AISHE web portal and out of them 754 Universities, 33,903 colleges and 7,154 stand alone Institutions have responded during the survey. 268 Universities are affiliating i.e. having Colleges.
277 Universities are privately managed, while 307 Universities are located in rural areas. 14 Universities are exclusively for women, of which four are in Rajasthan and two in Tamil Nadu.
There are 459 General, 101 Technical, 64 Agriculture and Allied, 50 Medical, 20 Law, 11 Sanskrit and 7 Language Universities (i.e., dedicated to Telugu, Kannada, Urdu etc.)
The top 8 States in terms of highest number of colleges in India are Uttar Pradesh (UP), Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh (AP), Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Madhya Pradesh (MP).
Bangalore district has the highest number, i.e., 970 colleges in the country. It is followed by Jaipur with 616 colleges, Hyderabad with 499, Nagpur 445, Rangareddy with 438. Top 50 districts have about 34% of colleges.

College Density: Telengana tops among the states in terms of college density, i.e. the number of colleges per lakh eligible population (population in the age-group 18-23 years). It has 60 colleges for each lakh of eligible population whereas this ratio dips to 7 for Bihar. All India average is 28. Karnataka comes third with 45, Maharashtra second with 43 per one lakh population, Rajasthan 4th with 35.
Rural vs. Urban: 60% Colleges are located in Rural Areas. 11.1% Colleges are exclusively for Women. Only 1.7% Colleges run Ph.D. programme and 33% Colleges run Post Graduate Level programmes.

Public vs. Private: 78% Colleges are privately managed; 64% Private-unaided and 14% Private-aided.
AP and Telangana have more than 80% Private-unaided colleges and Tamil Nadu has 76% Private-unaided Colleges, whereas, Bihar has 13% and Assam has only 10% Private-unaided colleges. Only 4.3% colleges have more than 3,000 students on rolls.

Boys vs. Girls: Total enrolment in higher education has been estimated to be 34.6 million with 18.6 million boys and 16 million girls. Girls constitute 46.2% of the total enrolment.

GER: Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in Higher education in India is 24.5%, which is calculated for 18-23 years of age group. GER for male population is 25.4% and for females, it is 23.5%. For Scheduled Castes, it is 19.9% and for Scheduled Tribes, it is 14.2% as compared to the national GER of 24.5%.
About 79.3% of the students are enrolled in Undergraduate level programme. Total number enrolled for Ph.D is 1.26 lakh students,. that is less than 0.4% of the total student enrolment.

Disciplines: A contrast could be seen in choice of discipline at undergraduate level and research. While 40% students are enrolled for BA (humanities), 16% for Sciences, at the Ph.D level, maximum number of students are enrolled in Science subjects (percentage has not been specified by the Survey).

Social Components: Scheduled Casts (SC) students constitute 13.9% and Scheduled Tribes (ST) students 4.9% of the total enrolment. 33.75% students belong to Other Backward Classes (OBC). 4.7% students belong to Muslim Minority and 1.97% from other Minority Community.
The total number of foreign students enrolled in higher education is 45,424. Of these 1,514 were enrolled in Karnataka. The foreign students come from 165 different countries from across the globe. The top 10 countries constitute 62% of the total foreign students enrolled.

Teachers: The estimated total number of teachers is 15,18,813. The male-female ratio is 61:39 per cent.

Pupil vs. Teachers: Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR) in Universities and Colleges is 21 if regular enrolment is considered.

Research: 24,171 students were awarded Ph.D. level degree during 2015 with 14,887 males and 9,284 females.

Subject wise enrolment of students in various disciplines.
The percentage of students opting for Ph.D. after their PG is also calculated to see the trend. In Agriculture and Allied courses 22% of the students are opting for Ph.D. after their Post-Graduation followed by Engineering and Technology courses where 11.7% of the students are opting for Ph.D. after their PG. It is followed by Science in which 6.5% of the students are opting for Ph.D. and in Medical science there are 4% of the students. Social Science has 2.3% of students opting for Ph.D. after the PG course in the same field.

Muslims: Among Minority category, data on Muslims have been collected separately. According to the response received during the survey, 4.67% students belong to Muslim Minority and 1.97% are from other Minority Community. Muslim Minority has more male students than females where as other Minority has more females than males.
Polytechnics: There is total number of 3,867 Polytechnics in India listed on AISHE portal and out of them 2,690 reported the data during the survey. The highest number of Polytechnics is in Maharashtra which is 1,091. 83% of polytechnic students are males and 17% females.
But this trend gets reversed in Nursing and Teacher’ Training (B.Ed) institutions. The total number of Nursing Institutions listed on AISHE portal is 3,060 and out of them only 1,917 responded, 62.65% response rate. The total enrolment in nursing course is 2.3 lakh out of them approximately 87% are female students and 13% are male.

B.Ed: The total number of Teacher’s Training institutions as listed on AISHE portal are 4,403 and out of them only 3,082 responded, which makes the response rate of 70%.The total number of students enrolled in teacher’s training course is 2.18 lakh at all India level. Out of them approx. 37% are male and 63% are female students.

Teachers by Social Category: At All-India level, teachers belonging to General category are more than half, that is 65% of the total number of teachers in India; OBC follows with 25.4%; while SC and ST with 7.5% and 2.1% respectively (Figure 20). Merely 3.4% teachers come from Muslim minority group, and 3.3% are from other minorities group.
Enrolment of Muslim students has increased from 4.15% in 2012-13 to 4.67% in 2015-16.
(For detailed data log onto: http://mhrd.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/statistics/AISHE2015-16.pdf)